fbpx
what are intangible assets

What You Need To Know About Intangible Assets!

Evaluating the intangible assets of a company is a crucial part of the fundamental analysis, especially in a generation with a lot of leading companies in the technology and service-based industries.

However, most investors ignore this part and focus more the physical assets like land, building, equipment etc. One of the major reasons why people skip the part of studying intangible assets is because these assets are a little difficult to evaluate. After all, how would you correctly measure the value of a brand or non-physical assets of a company?

In this post, I’ll try to demystify intangible assets in simple words so that you can understand what exactly are intangible assets, why are they valuable for a company and how can you evaluate the intangible assets of a company.

Overall, it’s going to be an exciting post. Therefore, please read it till the end because I’m sure it will be helpful to you in assessing companies better.

What are intangible assets?

Intangible assets are those assets that are not physical in nature, yet are valuable because they contribute to the potential revenue of the company.

A few of the common examples of intangible assets are brand recogintion, licenses, customer lists, and intellectual property, such as patents, franchises, trademarks, copyrights etc.

Quick Note: Contrary to these, TANGIBLE Assets are those assets that have a physical form. For example- land, buildings, machinery, equipment, inventory etc. Further, financial assets such as stocks, bonds etc. are also considered tangible assets.

Although intangible assets do not have an obvious physical value such as land or equipment, however, they can be equally valuable for a company for its long-term success or failure. 

For example, companies like Apple or Coca-Cola are highly successful because of the significant brand equity. Since it is not a physical asset and tricky to calculate the exact value, still brand equity is one of the primary reasons for the high sales of these companies. In India, companies like Hindustan Unilever, Colgate, Patanjali, etc also enjoy benefits of enormous brand value.

Further, a few more examples of intangible assets can be marketing-based (ex- Internet domain names, non-competition agreements etc), artistic-based (ex- literary works, musical works, pictures etc), Contract-based (ex- franchise agreements, broadcast rights, use rights etc) and technology-based (example- computer software, trade secrets like secret formulas and recipes etc). [Credits: Examples of intangile assets- Accounting tools]

what you need to know about intangible assets cover

Moreover, in a few industries, intangible assets are more valuable.

Unlike manufacturing companies where inventories and fixed assets contribute to the majority of their total assets, in a few industries the intangible assets are more valuable:

  • Consumer product companies depend on the brand name. For example- Hindustan Unilever, Godrej, Colgate, etc. The bigger the brand name, the easier are the sales. 
  • Technology companies get the most success by their technical know-how and skilled human resource. Ex- Infosys, TCS, etc.
  • Banking companies have their computer software license, stock exchange cards and electronic trading platform (websites). Ex- HDFC bank.
  • Telecom industries use their bandwidth licenses (including spectrum) to enjoy benefits. Example- Bharti Airtel
  • Drugs and pharmacy companies protect their sales through patents, which means that they can sell unlimited medicines of patented drug and their competitors can’t enter or replicate the same. Ex- Dr. Reddy’s Laboratory, Glenmark Pharma etc.

And that’s why, the leading companies in these industries spend a lot of money in building these intangible assets. 

For example, in the IT industry, training and recruiting are more prominent than investing in physical assets like buildings.

Similarly, the pharmaceutical companies spend a lot of capital in the Research and development (R&D) which may help them get a patent on a revolutionary drug. And that’s why, while evaluating companies in this industry, the capital expenditure of the different companies/competitors in their R&D work should be carefully evaluated. 

If you look into the consumer product companies, they spend a lot of money in advertisement just for brand awareness. Although, this may not lead to instant sales and may add overhead expenses, However, over the long term. branding help these companies to generate more profit. 

Valuing Intangible Assets:

Intangible assets of a company can be found on the asset side of the balance sheet of a company. For example- here is the intangible assets for Hindustan Unilever (HUL)

hul balance sheet

Source: Yahoo Finance

You can use the intangible to total asset ratio to evaluate the worth of intangible assets in a company. For example- in the case of Hindustan Unilever, its intangible assets make around 2.05% percent of its total asset.

However, valuing intangible assets are easier said than done. One of the biggest reasons equipment high sales of HUL in India is its prominent brand recognition. A few of the popular brands of HUL are Lux, Lifebuoy, Surf Excel, Rin, Wheel, Fair & Lovely, Pond’s, Vaseline, Lakmé, Dove, Clinic Plus, Sunsilk, Pepsodent, Closeup, Axe, Brooke Bond, Bru, Knorr, Kissan, Kwality the and Pureit

Here, do you really think that the brand value of HUL contributes only around 2% of its net assets? I don’t think so. It must be worth more. However, there’s no easy way to correctly evaluate the worth of the brand recognition and other non-physical assets. 

Quick fact: According to Forbes, COCA COLA’s brand value amounted to 57.3 billion U.S. dollars. It is the only company in the top seven list that sells carbonated sugar water beverages. Rest all are technology companies with Apple and Google as leaders. This is the power of branding. Read more here: The world’s most valuable brands. 

Also read:

Bottom Line:

Although intangible assets do not have a physical presence, they add a huge value to the company. There may be even cases where the intangible assets are of far greater value than the market value of the company’s tangible assets. 

However, while valuing such companies, you may have to put some efforts to study these assets as the accounting conventions do not always value the exact worth of a few intangible assets and they may be reported below their true value in the balance sheet.

Any how, look for the intangible assets that are definite (i.e. stays with the company for as long as it continues operations) and difficult to replicate.

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

Dupont Analysis - A powerful tool to analyze companies

Dupont Analysis: A powerful tool to analyze companies.

How to incorporate the Dupont analysis while researching stocks?

As investors in the stock markets, it is important to find high-quality along with fairly valued companies to invest our capital. The rationale behind this is simple. Our aim in the markets is to always preserve our capital first and then produce profits.

There are several robust tools that investors use during their stock analysis.

In this post, we will make an attempt to share one such powerful framework to assess the quality of stocks that we target for our portfolio -The Dupont Analysis.

The topics we shall aim to cover are as follows-

  1. What is the DuPont Analysis? Who made it?
  2. The technical background of the DuPont Analysis.
  3. Real world DuPont Analysis of Eicher Motors
  4. Conclusions

The post should be an easy read and we hope our readers find this to be of great value to their time. Feel free to reach out to us or post comments in case of any doubts or clarifications.

1. What is the DuPont Analysis? Who made it?

DuPont analysis was created around the 1920s by Donaldson Brown of Dupont Corporation. Initially, when Brown invented the framework it was used for assessing the managerial efficiency of the company before it got adopted by public market investors. His genius was breaking down the formula for Return on Equity (ROE) into its constituent parts to analyze the root cause of ROE.

2. The technical background of the DuPont Analysis

Breaking ROE into its constituents helps us investors analyze the company’s business model and how it manages to achieve excess returns for its shareholders.

Since most investors (including Warren Buffett) use ROE to judge the quality of a stock it would be of great use to us to understand how deep “Quality” actually runs within the business.

To understand how the analysis technique is used let’s start with the very basics. As most of us already know, Return on Equity (ROE) is calculated from the following formula –

ROE formula

Now, our friend Brown brown multiplied and divided the expression to get the following–

DuPont Analysis 1

This expression is now also summarised as below-

DuPont Analysis 2

But Brown did not stop there, he took this expression and went one step further. This time he multiplied and divided the expression with Total Assets to give us the DuPont formula-

DuPont Analysis 3

Which is again summarised as,

DuPont Analysis 4

From the last expression, it becomes clear that ROE is not merely a ratio (as per the formula we started with) but a framework to understand the business and capital position of the company as a whole.

Valuable insights can be derived from knowing which of the attributes drives the rise or deterioration of ROE over a period of time.

It can also be used to compare companies with their peer sets to get a deeper understanding of the differences in the business models between the companies.

Also read: How to read financial statements of a company?

3. Real world DuPont Analysis on Eicher Motors:

Let us perform the DuPont analysis on Eicher motors for the period 2014-2018.

The summary table and the evolution of the three attributes from the analysis is as given below.

Financial Ratio 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Net Effect
ROE 19.2 24.5 31.3 31.2 27.9 Increased
Net Profit Margin 5.8 7.0 21.9 23.7 21.9 Increased
Asset Turnover 203.3 222.4 105.5 100.3 94.1 Decreased
Leverage Ratio 162.9 156.2 135.2 131.1 135.5 Decreased

From the table, we can see that the company has improved its ROE from 19.2% to 27.9% in 5 reporting periods.

We can also see that the company decreased its leverage and asset turnover but this drop was offset by close to 3.7 times rise in the net profit margins.

Further, notice that the leverage ratio has been stable since 2016 while asset turnover has seen a drop in 2015-2016 and then moderate decreases from 2016-2018.

This analysis can now set the foundation for further analysis, the questions raised from the above figures could be as below ( this may not be very exhaustive but may give an idea as to how the framework is used)-

  1. What is causing the decrease in asset turnovers? Is it because of rising inventory? A fall in efficiency? Or perhaps a decrease in capacity utilisations at manufacturing facilities?
  2. Is the Net Profit Margins led by rise in prices or decrease in costs of goods sold?
  3. What caused the spike in net profits and the corresponding drop in asset turnover?

Answering the above questions in additions to questions generated by assessing the financial statements could help the investors analyze Eicher Motors in greater depth.

Also read: How To Select A Stock To Invest In Indian Stock Market For Consistent Returns?

4. Conclusion

Since ROE is used as a measure of the quality of management by many investors, the incorporation of DuPont Analysis could help quell any illusions developed by using ROE at face value.

According to DuPont formula, ROE is a function of net profit margins, asset turnover, and the leverage ratios. A rise or dip in ROE could be because of a corresponding rise/fall in any of these metrics and hence a high ROE doesn’t always indicates a better performance.

Our readers are advised to use DuPont Analysis along with the other stock evaluation frameworks and not to solely depend on data provided by the financial websites.

That’s all for this post. I hope it was helpful to you. Happy Investing!!

Levin is a former investment banker and a hedge fund analyst. He is an NIT Warangal graduate with around 5 years experience in the share market.

dcf analysis cover

How to value stocks using DCF Analysis?

Share market is a place where one can sell you a one-liter packet of milk for Rs 1,000 and if you might be even happy to purchase that. It’s completely impossible to decide whether a stock is overvalued or undervalued just by looking at the market price of the company.

And that’s why valuation is a crucial factor while deciding whether to invest in a stock or not. You do not want to purchase a stock at ten times its valuation. After all, a good company may not be a good investment if you are overpaying for it. It’s always preferable to invest in stocks when they are trading below their true (intrinsic) value.

In the words of the legendary investor Warren Buffett, the intrinsic value of a company can be defined as —

“The intrinsic value of a company is the discounted value of the cash that can be taken out of a business during its remaining life.” — Warren Buffett

Nevertheless, evaluating the value of a company using this definition is easier said than done. After all, finding the intrinsic value of a stock requires forecasting the future cash flows of a company which needs a lot of calculated assumptions like growth rate, discount rate, terminal value etc.

Anyways, one of the most popular approaches to find the intrinsic value of a company is the discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis. In this post, we are going to discuss the step-by-step explanation of how to find the true value of a stock using the DCF method. Further, we’ll also perform the DCF analysis on a real-life company listed in the Indian stock market to find its true value.

Quick note: I’ll try to keep the explanation as simple as possible so that you can easily understand the fundamentals. Let’s get started.

Discounted cash flow valuation:

Before we start the actual calculations, let’s quickly discuss what exactly is discounted cash flow analysis.

Discounted cash flow (DCF) is a valuation method used to estimate the attractiveness of an investment opportunity.

DCF analyses use future free cash flow projections and discounts them, using a required annual rate, to arrive at present value estimates. A present value estimate is then used to evaluate the potential for investment. (Source: Discounted Cash Flow (DCF)– Investopedia)

In other words, discounted cash flow analysis forecasts the future cash flow of a company and later discounts them back to their present value to find the true intrinsic value of the stock (at the time of calculation).

Further, I would also like to mention that valuing stocks using the DCF method requires a little knowledge of a few common financial terms like free cash flow, discount rate, growth rate, outstanding shares etc. Here is a quick walk through the key inputs required in the discounted cash flow analysis.

Key inputs of Discounted Cashflow Valuation:

1. Free cash flow (FCF): Free cash flow can be defined as the excess cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required for its operation or to expand its asset base. It’s important for an investor to look into the free cash flow of a company carefully because it is a relatively more accurate method to find the profitability of a company than the company’s earnings. Free cash flow of a company can be calculated by using the below formula:

FCF = Cash flow from operating activities — capital expenditures 

Also read: What is Free Cash Flow (FCF)? Explained in Just 1,000 Words.

2. Growth Rate: It is the expected rate at which the company may grow in the upcoming 5–10 years. It’s really important to use a realistic growth rate for efficient calculations. Else, the calculated intrinsic value might be misleading.

Different investors use different approaches to find the expected growth rate of a company. Few of the common ways are by looking at the historical growth rate for the earnings/profits, reading the analysts reports to find out what they are forecasting, peeking in the company’s annual report/latest news to find out what the management/CEO is saying regarding the company’s growth rate in upcoming years etc.

Quick Note: In the book- ‘The little book of valuation‘, the author Aswath Damodaran has used an interesting method to find the growth rate of a firm. He argues that for a firm to grow, it has to either manage its assets better (efficiency growth) or make new investments (new investment growth). He used the multiple of proportion invested and return on investment to arrive at the growth rate in earnings. If you haven’t read his book, it is a good place for the beginners to start learning valuation of stocks.

3. Discount rate: The discount rate is usually calculated by CAPM (Capital asset pricing model). However, you can also use the discount rate as the rate of return that they want to earn from the stock. For example, let’s say that you want an annual return rate of 12%, then you can use it as the discount rate.

As a thumb rule for the discount rate, use a higher value if the stock is riskier and a lower discount rate if the stock is safer (like blue chips). This rule is in accordance with the principle of the risk-reward which claims a higher reward for a higher risk.

4. Terminal Multiple Factor: This is the fourth input of the DCF calculation that is used to find the terminal value of the company. Terminal value is the estimated value of a business beyond the explicit forecast period. It is a critical part of the DCF model as it typically makes up a large percentage of the total value of a business.

There are two approaches to the terminal value formula: (1) perpetual growth, and (2) exit multiple.

In this post, we are going to use the exit multiple approach. This approach is more common among industry professionals as they prefer to compare the value of a business to something they can observe in the market. The most commonly used terminal factor is EV / EBITDA. (Read more here).

Steps to value stocks using DCF Analysis:

Here are the steps required to value stocks using the discounted cash flow valuation method:

  1. First, take the average of the last three years free cash flow (FCF) of the company.
  2. Next, multiply this calculated FCF with the expected growth rate to estimate the free cash flows of future years.
  3. Then, calculate the net present value of this cash flow by dividing it by the discount factor.
  4. Repeat the same process for the next 10 years to find the net present value (NPV) of the future free cash flows. Add the NPV’s of the FCF for all the ten years.
  5. Next, find the terminal value the stock by multiplying the final year FCF with a terminal multiple factor.
  6. Add the values from step 4 and 5 and adjust the total cash and debt (mentioned in the balance sheet of the company) to arrive at the market value for the entire company.
  7. Finally, divide the calculated number in step 6 by the total number of outstanding shares to arrive at the intrinsic value per share of the company.

If the final intrinsic value of the company is lower than the current market price of the share, then it can be considered undervalued (and a good time to invest in that stock assuming the quality of the stock is also amazing).

On the other hand, if the final intrinsic value of the company is greater than the current market value, then the stock might be over-valued. In such a scenario, it’s better to keep that stock in the watchlist and wait for the price to come down within the purchase range.

That’s all. This is the exact approach used to find the discounted cash flow value of any company.

In any case, if you are not comfortable in performing DCF valuation using excel sheets, you can also use the Trade Brains’ online DCF calculator to find the intrinsic value of a stock.

Here’s a link to our simplified online DCF calculator (It’s free to use).

Real life example of valuing stocks from Indian stock market using DCF analysis.

Now, let’s calculate the Intrinsic value of Ashok Leyland (NSE: ASHOKLEY) using the Discounted Cashflow Valuation method. (Please note that all the data used here has been gathered from Annual reports.)

  1. First, we will start by finding the free cash flow of Ashok Leyland. Here, we’ll take the FCF for the last 3 years and consider their average as a reasonable FCF. Now, free cash flow is equal to cash from operating activates minus the capital expenditures. The average FCF for the last three years turns out to be Rs 1715 Cr.
  2. Next, we’ll project this FCF only for the upcoming ten years. Although, the company may continue for many more years after the tenth year, however predicting free cash flow for over 10 years is really difficult. Therefore, we assume that the company will sell off all its assets at the end of year ten at a ‘Sell off valuation’ (Terminal value). We’ll use a multiplier of 9 for the tenth year cash flow to simulate the value of these cash flows in the case company would sell all its assets (This is a necessary assumption that we need to make in order to find the value of the company).
  3. Apart from the cash flows, the next important input is cash and cash equivalents which the company reflects on its balance sheet. For Ashok Leyland, this value is equal to Rs 993 Cr.
  4. Besides cash, the next essential input is the debt (as debts have to be first paid off and shareholders are last in the line). Ashok Leyland has a total debt of Rs 515 Cr.
  5. Next, we need to find the annual growth rate for Ashok Leyland. From the historical reports, we’ll consider a conservative growth rate of 12.75% per annum for our calculations of forecasted cash-flow.
  6. Further, here we are considering a discount rate of 13.5% for discounting the future cash flows to their present value.
  7. In addition, we need the total numbers of outstanding shares of Ashok Leyland. It is equal to 294 Crores.
  8. Finally, let’s take a margin of safety of 10% on the overall calculated intrinsic value to give our calculations a benefit of doubt. (Higher the margin of safety, lower is the risk).

dcf calculator

After placing the above values in the online DCF Calculator, the intrinsic value per share of Ashok Leyland turns out to be Rs 93.19 (after a margin of safety of 10% on the final intrinsic price). This is the true value estimate per share for Ashok Leyland at the time of writing using the DCF model.

The current stock price of Ashok Leyland is at Rs 105.55. This means that this stock is currently slightly overvalued compared to the calculated intrinsic price.

Quick Note: This intrinsic value is based on my calculations and assumptions. Although I’ve tried to be reasonably conservative in using the inputs, still no valuation should be considered precise as there is no guarantee that the company will grow at the assumed growth rate for the upcoming years. The key while performing DCF is to always consider rational inputs to arrive at a roughly correct intrinsic value.

Also read: How to Find Intrinsic Value of Stocks Using Graham Formula?

Warning: Garbage in, Garbage out

Now that you have understood how to value stocks using the DCF analysis approach, let me give you a FAIR WARNING. DCF is a very powerful tool for valuing stocks. However, this methodology is only as good as the inputs.

For example, even a small change in inputs (like growth rate or discount rate) can bring large changes in the estimated value of the company. (Try changing these values by 1% or 2% and you can notice a significant change in the result). In short, if the inputs are not reasonable, the out will also not be correct -’Garbage in, garbage out’.

Therefore, fill all the inputs carefully as they all have the potential to erode the accuracy in the estimated intrinsic value.

Closing Thoughts:

DCF method is a very powerful method of valuing stocks. However, this method requires rational inputs.

Many investors who have already made up their mind to purchase a stock, can easily infiltrate the final result by assuming a higher growth rate/ terminal value or a lower discount rate. However, if you are choosing wrong or unrealistic inputs for growth rate, discount rate etc, the final intrinsic value per share may also be incorrect. Therefore, it is always recommended to use conservative inputs while performing DCF valuation.

That’s all for this post. I hope it is useful to you. If you have any questions, feel free to comment below. Happy Investing.

**Investing for Beginners**

If you are new to investing, you can learn how to perform stock valuation and pick profitable shares for consistent returns in the Indian stock market with Trade Brains flagship course ‘How to pick winning stocks’. It is a self-paced online course with lifetime access so that you can learn on your own schedule. This course is currently available at a discount. Check out more here. Happy investing!!!

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

How to Find Intrinsic Value of Stocks Using Graham Formula cover

How to Find Intrinsic Value of Stocks Using Graham Formula?

How to find intrinsic value of stocks using Graham formula?

Valuation is one of the most important aspects while investigating any stock for investing. A good business might not be a good investment if you overpay for it. However, most valuation methods like DCF analysis, EPS valuation, dividend discount model etc requires little assumptions and calculations.

Luckily, there are also a few valuation methods available that are pretty simple to use in order to find the true value of a company.

In this post, we are going to discuss one such valuation method which is really straightforward and simple to use. And this valuation method is known as Graham formula. Here are the topics that we are going to discuss today:

  1. A brief introduction to Benjamin Graham
  2. How to find the intrinsic value of stocks using Graham formula?
  3. Pros and cons of graham formula.
  4. Real life example of valuing stocks from Indian stock market using graham formula.
  5. Closing thoughts.

Overall, this post is going to be really helpful for all the beginners who are stuck with the valuation of stocks and want to learn the easiest approach to find the true intrinsic value of companies. Therefore, make sure to read this post till the end.

Let’s get started.

1. A brief introduction to Benjamin Graham

Benjamin Graham was a British-born American investor and economist. He was a sincere value investor and often credited for popularizing the concept of value investing among the investing population. Graham was also:

Graham was a strict follower of value investing and preferred purchasing amazing businesses when they were trading at a significant discount.

In his book- Security analysis, Benjamin Graham mentioned his formula to pick stocks which become overly popular among stock market investors for valuing stocks since then.

graham formula security analysis

2. How to find the intrinsic value of stocks using Graham formula?

The Original formula shared by Benjamin Graham to find the true value of a company was

V* = EPS x (8.5 + 2g)

Where,

  • V* = Intrinsic value of the stock
  • EPS = Trailing twelve-month earnings per share of the company
  • 8.5 = PE of a stock at 0% growth rate
  • g = Growth rate of the company for the next 7-10 years

Anyways, this formula was published in 1962 and was revised later to meet the expected rate of return as a lot concerning the market and economy has changed since Graham’s time to present. The revised Graham formula is:

graham

During 1962 in the United States, the risk-free rate of return was 4.4% (this can also be considered as the minimum required rate of return). However, to adjust the formula to the present, we divide 4.4 by the current AAA corporate bond yield (Y) to make the formula legit.

Presently, the AAA corporate bonds are yielding close to 4.22% in the United States. (Source: YCharts). In order to make an apple to apple comparison, we’ll consider the bond yield for 1962 and current yield- both for the United States. Therefore, you can consider the value of Y equal to 4.22% currently, which may be subjected to change in the future.

Quick note: You can also use the corporate bond yield of India in 1962 and current yield to normalize the equation for valuing Indian stocks. In such case, the value 4.4. will be replaced by the Indian corporate bond yield in 1962 and Y will be the current corporate bond yield in India. Make sure to use the correct values.

Note: The Adjusted Graham formula for conservative investors.

Many conservative investors have even modified the Graham formula further to reach a defensive intrinsic value of the stocks.

For example, Graham originally used 8.5 as the PE of the company with zero growth. However, many investors use this zero growth PE between 7 to 9, depending on the industry they are investigating and their own approach.

Further, Graham used a growth multiple of ‘2’ in his original equation. However, many investors argue that during Graham’s time, there were not many companies with a high growth rate, such as technology stocks which may grow at 15-25% per annum. Here, if you multiply this growth rate with a factor of ‘2’, the calculated intrinsic value can be quite aggressive. And hence, many investors use a factor of 1 or 1.5 for the growth rate multiple in their calculations.

Overall, the adjusted formula of conservative investors turns out to be:

V* = EPS x (7 + g) * (4.4/Y)

3. Pros and cons of Graham formula.

The biggest pros of Graham’s formula is its ease and straightforwardness. You do not require any difficult input or complex calculations to find the intrinsic value of a company using the Graham formula. In a few easy calculation steps, this method can help the investors to define the upper range of their purchase price in any stock.

However, as no valuation method is perfect, there are also a few cons of Graham formula. For example, one of the important inputs of Graham formula is EPS. Anyways, EPS can be manipulated a little by the companies using the different loopholes in the accounting principles, and it such scenarios the calculated intrinsic value might be misleading. 

Another problem with Graham formula is that like most valuation methods, this formula also completely ignores the qualitative characteristics of a company like Industry characteristics, management quality, competitive advantage (moat) etc while calculating the true value of stocks.

4. Real life example of valuing stocks from Indian stock market using graham formula.

Now that you understood the basics of how you can value stocks using graham formula, let us use this formula to perform a basic stock valuation of a real-life example from the Indian stock market.

Here, we are taking the case study of HERO MOTOCORP (NSE: HEROMOTOCO) to find its true intrinsic value using the Graham formula. For Hero Motocorp,

  • EPS (TTM) = Rs 186.29
  • Expected growth (for the next 5 years) = 9.89%

(Past 5-year EPS growth rate per annum (CAGR) of Hero motocorp is 14.14%. Taking 30% safety on this growth rate as it is a large cap, we can estimate a conservative expected future growth rate of 9.89% for next few years).

Now first, let us find the intrinsic value of Hero motocorp using the original Graham formula,

V* = EPS x (8.5 + 2g)
= 186.29 x (8.5 + 2*9.89) = Rs 5268. 28

Now, using the revised formula with conservative zero-growth PE of 7 and growth multiple of one, the intrinsic value of Hero motocorp turns out to be:

V* = EPS x (7 + g) x (4.4/4.22)
= 186.29 x ( 7 + 9.89) x (4.4/4.22) =3280.65

At the time of writing this post, hero motocorp stock is trading at a market price of Rs 2961.90 and PE (TTM) of 15.90.  Therefore, by using Graham formula, we can consider this stock to be currently undervalued.

Disclaimer: The case study used above is just for educational purpose and should not be considered as a stock advisory. Please research the company carefully before investing. After all, no one cares more about your money than you do.

You can also use Trade Brains’ online GRAHAM CALCULATOR to perform your calculations fast.

5. Closing thoughts.

An important point worth mentioned here is the concept of margin of safety that Benjamin Graham repeatedly taught in his books.

In simple words, according to the concept of margin of safety, if the calculated intrinsic price of a company turns out to be Rs 100, always give your calculations a little safety and purchase the stock at a 15-25% below that calculated value, i.e. when the stock trades below Rs 75-85.

Overall, Graham formula is a fast, simple and straightforward method to find the intrinsic value of stocks. If you haven’t tried it yet, you should definitely use this valuation approach while performing the fundamental analysis of any stock.

Investing for Beginners

If you are new to investing, you can learn how to perform stock valuation and pick profitable shares for consistent returns in the Indian stock market with Trade Brains flagship course ‘How to pick winning stocks’. It is a self-paced online course with lifetime access so that you can learn on your own schedule. This course is currently available at a discount. Check out more here. Happy investing!!!

Additional credits: Vasanth (for data inputs in Graham Formula)

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

What is Internal Rate of Return (IRR)? And How Does it Works?

What is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR)? And How Does it Works?

Hi readers. A lot has been covered in our blog since inception, we have written articles ranging from the basics of financial statements to concepts of valuation. A reader who has followed our blog from the beginning should now be able to perform a detailed analysis of a company and arrive at a valuation for investment.

To our ever growing list of posts, today we shall add one that seeks to provide a method for calculating the rate of return of a portfolio. This method is called as Internal Rate of Return (IRR).

The IRR method to measure the portfolio performance has become a lot popular in recent days because of its effectiveness over CAGR measurements. That’s why you need to get acquainted with what actually is IRR and how to quickly calculate it.

The topics we shall read about in today’s post are as follows.

  1. What is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR)?
  2. How is IRR different from CAGR and how is it more useful?
  3. Application of IRR method of return calculation with an example.

It’s going to be a very informative post. So, let’s get started.

1. What is the Internal Rate of Return (IRR)?

Theoretically speaking, IRR is the rate at which the net cash flows (both inflow as well as outflow) from an investment would be equal to zero. Better said, it is the rate of return to be achieved by all the money invested to give back all the cash received.

2. How is IRR different from CAGR and how is it more useful for investors?

Although CAGR is a classic investment metric for calculating investment returns and makes a better representation of performance than average returns since it assumes the investment capital to be compounded over time.

But it makes a couple of assumptions which may hinder its practical use. Firstly, it assumes that the compounding process is a smooth one over time with steady returns being made every year. Secondly, it assumes that a portfolio incurs cashflow only two times during its lifetime. One at the very beginning when an investment is made and the second when the investment is sold and cash is returned to the investor.

In practice rarely do we come across such scenarios where an investment is made only once, most of us happen to make regular investments over time and hence the overall return may actually be different than what the CAGR method of calculation may usually project it to be.

In such cases of multiple or uneven investment periods and cash flows, the CAGR method of calculation becomes futile and using the Internal Rate of Return method would better serve the purpose. Mathematically, the IRR calculation is represented by the following expression.

Where P0, P1, . . . Pn equals the cash flows in periods 1, 2, . . . n, respectively; And, IRR equals the investment’s internal rate of return.

Also read: How to perform the Relative Valuation of stocks?

3. Application of IRR method of return calculation with an example.

Assume we bought a stock ₹3,00,000. Also, assume that we bought an additional ₹1,00,000 worth of stock one year later and another ₹50,000 in the two years later.

Let us make one more assumption that we hold the stock for 2 more years before selling the stock for a total cash return of ₹7,50,000

Here is how the IRR equation looks in this scenario:

Internal Rate of Return example

Mathematically speaking IRR cannot be computed analytically, but thanks to calculators and spreadsheets today this task can be done fairly easily.

Using the XIRR function in an excel we get the IRR for this scenario as 11.80%, which is the rate that makes the present value of the investment’s cash flows equal to zero.

If we were to calculate the CAGR for the example for an initial investment of ₹4,50,000 and final cash return of ₹7,50,000 over a period of 5 years we would get a but the incorrect return of 10.8%.

Quick Note: If you want to learn how to perform fundamental analysis of stocks from scratch, feel free to check out this online course- HOW TO PICK WINNING STOCKS. Enroll now and start your journey is the Indian stock market today!!

Closing thoughts

Although initially, the IRR method found applications in the capital budgeting projects of companies, recently it has become a favored method among investors to calculate the capital allocation efficiency of their portfolio.

We advise our readers to add this to their ever-growing investing toolkit. Happy Investing.

Levin is a former investment banker and a hedge fund analyst. He is an NIT Warangal graduate with around 5 years experience in the share market.

free cash flow fcf

What is Free Cash Flow (FCF)? Explained in Just 1,000 Words.

Hi Investors. One of the most popular topics in company valuation is the Free cash flow. If you are involved in the fundamental analysis of stocks, you definitely have heard about this term.

Nevertheless, for beginners, free cash flow can be a mystery.

In this post, we are going to discuss what exactly is a free cash flow and why it is important to evaluate while researching a company. Here are the topics that we will cover in this post-

  1. What is a free cash flow?
  2. Why is free cash flow important?
  3. How to calculate free cash flow of a company?
  4. How to analyze the free cash flow?
  5. Conclusion.

This might be one of the most important articles for the people interested to learn stock valuations. Therefore, read this post completely. Let’s get started.

1. What is a Free Cash Flow (FCF)?

Free cash flow is the cash that is available for all the investors of the company. It represents the excess cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required for its operation or to expand its asset base.

Now, you might be wondering what is so ‘FREE’ about this cash flow and how it is different from the earnings of the company?

Here you need to understand that not all income is equal to cash. If a company is making earnings, it doesn’t mean that it can spend all the income directly. The company can only spend the free cash. There is a crucial difference between ‘cash’ versus ‘cash that can be taken out of a business’, or in accounting terms: cash from operating activities and free cash flow (FCF).

The cash from operating activities is the amount of cash generated by the business operations of a company. However, not all of the cash from operating activities can be taken out of the business because some of it is required to keep the company operational. These expenses are called capital expenditures (CAPEX).

On the other hand, free cash flow is the cash that a company is able to generate after spending the money required to stay in business. This is the cash at the end of the year, after deducting all operating expenses, expenditures, investments etc and is available for distribution to all stakeholders of a company (Stakeholders include both equity and debt investors.)

Also read: 8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know

2. Why is free cash flow important?

It’s important for an investor to look into the free cash flow of a company carefully because it is a relatively more accurate method to find the profitability of a company than the company’s earnings.

This is because earnings show the current profitability of the company. On the other hand, the free cash flow signals the future growth prospects of the company as this is the cash that allows the company to pursue opportunities to enhance shareholder’s value. Free cash flow reflects the ease with which businesses can grow or pay dividends to the shareholder.

The excess cash can be utilized by the company in expanding their portfolio, developing new products, making useful acquisitions, paying dividends, reducing debt or to pursue any other growth opportunity.

Further, free cash flow is also used as the input while calculating the intrinsic value of a company using the popular valuation technique- Discounted cash flow (DCF) Model.

(Besides, as free cash flow is the additional money that can be taken out of the company without affecting the running of the business, it is also called the “Owner’s Earnings”.)

3. How to calculate free cash flow of a stock?

Companies in the stock market are not obliged to publish their free cash flow. That’s why you can’t find FCF directly in the financial statements of the companies. However, the good point is that it is easy to calculate them.

To calculate the free cash flow of a stock, you’ll require its financial statements i.e income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statements. There are two calculation methods to find Free cash flow of a company.

Method 1: From the Income statement & Balance sheet

FCF = EBIT (1-tax rate) +(depreciation & amortisation) -(change in net working capital) – (capital expenditure)

Method 2: From the cash flow statement

Free cash flow is calculated as cash from operations minus capital expenditures.

FCF = Cash flow from operating activities – capital expenditures (from the cash flow from investing activities)

Quick Note: To make the things simpler, SCREENER.IN has already made the free cash flow of the stocks available on their website. Feel free to check it out. Nevertheless, we advise our readers to do the calculations themselves to avoid any algorithm miscalculations.

free cash flow titan company

(Source: Screener.in)

Also read: What’s the formula for calculating free cash flow? -Investopedia

4. How to analyze the free cash flow of a company?

While studying the cash flow of a company, it is important to find out where the cash is coming from. The cash can be generated either from the earnings or debts. While an increase in cash flow because of the increase in earnings is a good sign. However, the same is not true with debts.

Moreover, if two companies have a same free cash flow, it doesn’t mean that they have a similar future prospect. Few industries have a higher capital expenditure compared to other industries. Further, if the Capex is high, you need to investigate whether the reason for the high capital expenditure is due to expenses in growth or expenditure. In order to learn these, you have to read the quarterly/annual reports of the companies carefully.

Negative FCF of a company.

A consistently declining or negative free cash flow of a can be a warning sign for the investors. Negative free cash flow is dangerous because it may lead to slow down in the business. Further, if the company didn’t improve its free cash flow, it might face insufficient liquidity to stay in the business.

Quick Note: If you want to learn free cash flow and discounted cash flow (DCF) model in depth, feel free to check out this online course: HOW TO PICK WINNING STOCKS? Enroll now and learn stock valuation techniques today.

5. Conclusion

In this post, we discussed the Free cash flow (FCF). It is a measure of a company’s financial performance. Free cash flow represents how much cash a company has left from its operations i.e. the cash that could be used to pursue opportunities that improve shareholder value.

However, the absolute value of the free cash value doesn’t tell you the whole story. You have to find out where this cash is coming from and how the company is using it. Whether they are spending this money effectively on operations like giving healthy dividends, buybacks, acquisitions etc- or not. And finally, a consistent negative free cash flow of a company might be a warning sign for the investors.

Also check out: Online Discounted Cashflow (DCF) Calculator

That’s all for this post. I hope it was useful to you. Happy Investing!!

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

enterprise value and equity value examples

A Complete Guide on Enterprise Value and Equity Value.

Enterprise Value and Equity Value are two terms that have confused investors and sometimes professionals alike through the years. In this post, I shall try to clear some air on both the terms and help our readers figure out the one they need to use during their analysis of companies.

Here are the topics that we will cover in this post:

  1. Who are the different stakeholders in a firm?
  2. What is the level of risk associated with the level of ownership?
  3. What is Enterprise Value and Equity Value and how are they calculated?
  4. Enterprise Value and Equity Value Multiples
  5. Methods of analysis using Enterprise Value and Equity Value
  6. Closing thoughts

On a broad level, this will be long, but an easy read and we would really appreciate that our readers leave comments in case of any doubts.

1. Who are the different stakeholders in a firm?

To understand the concept of Enterprise Value and Equity Value, it would first be necessary to understand the different players in the capital markets and their claims on a company’s capital and income.

To understand this, picture a company like a big country with different religious and social groups with each group seeking to pursue their own interest but somehow still manage to operate under the common banner of a company.

These interest groups from the perspective of a company include those who have contributed capital to the firm. Since a company can generate capital from debt and equity the top-level classification of the mentioned interest groups comprises of Debt Holders and Equity Holders

Note that the two groups can be further divided into subgroups depending on the priorities of each subgroup.

Also read: Shareholding Pattern- Things that you need to know

2. What is the level of risk and return associated with the level of ownership?

In corporate finance, when an asset is sold the debt holders get a priority to the funds generated from the sale and then the different classes of equity holders.

Since debt holders normally take fixed payments at the regular periods regardless of the profit-generating capacity of a company, their position tends to be the one of minimum risk in the company’s capital structure.

The equity holders, on the other hand, get dividends only when the company makes a profit (in most cases) and also happen to pledge their money as owners of the firm without the promise of returns. This makes their position the riskiest within the capital structure.

The below infographic should summarise the relationship between capital and relevant risk and payments for different equity and debt holders.

Enterprise Value and Equity Value 1

3. What is Enterprise Value and Equity Value and how are they calculated?

Now to address the crux of this post, assume that a big financial investor wants to buy a company. Let us say he wants to get 100% control of the firm and also 100% of the earnings generated by the firm.

To achieve the first goal, he would just have to buy the stakes of equity holders of the firm, these equity holders could include the Minority Interest, the Preferred Shareholders, and the Common Shareholders. The money the buyer would have to expend to acquire the complete equity of all the above-mentioned groups is what is known as the Equity Value.

Now since the equity holders are of the picture, the buyer now turns his eyes towards the debt holders. To make the debt holders give up claims to the company’s earnings (in the form of interest and principal payments), our buyer would have to pay them cash equivalent to the debt they hold in the company. A lot of the times, the buyers use the cash and cash equivalents of the company they bought to pay off the debt outstanding on the balance sheet. In finance, the term used for the is called the Net Debt.

Net Debt = Total Debt – Cash and Cash Equivalents

And further, the formula for Enterprise value becomes

Enterprise value = Equity Value + Net Debt

Enterprise Value and Equity Value 2

Assuming the company has also got minority interest, preferred shareholders and affiliates/associates the formula gets modified as

Enterprise Value  = Equity Value + Preferred Shares + Minority Interests – Value of Associates + Net debt

4. What are the Enterprise Value and Equity Value multiples?

The key difference between Enterprise Value and Equity Value is the inclusion of the Net Debt figure in the calculation. So when we think of multiples only terms which have the payments related to debt (interest) should be included with Enterprise Value and the metrics devoid of debt payments (interest) should be included with Equity Value.

The following figure should give the summary of the financial statement components used with both Enterprise Value and Equity Value.

As mentioned earlier, please note in the income statement that all metrics which include interest is included with the Enterprise Value calculation.

Enterprise Value and Equity Value 3

The corresponding ratios are summarised in the following figure

Enterprise Value and Equity Value 4

5. Methods of analysis using Enterprise Value and Equity Value

The multiples of Enterprise Value and Equity Value can be used extensively in the valuation analysis of a company. The two methods of valuation that are commonly used are relative valuation and historical valuation.

The limitation of using the relative valuation method is that during the period of elevated valuations- during a bull market all our comparable companies may be trading at a premium, this may sometimes make our target company seem cheap when it is only less expensive.

Similarly, during periods of depressed valuations, our target company may look expensive compared to our comparables when it is actually only slightly less cheap.

Also read: Why Warren Buffet Suggests- ‘Price Is What You Pay, Value Is What You Get’?

6. Closing thoughts

Although a lot of retail investors do not use Enterprise Value multiples in their valuations to could be useful to do so since the resulting valuations are inclusive of the leverage the companies have employed in their business activities.

In case retail investors find the concept of Enterprise value confusing, it should not deter them from performing a good analysis of companies if they use other leverage evaluation methods in their research and analysis process.

We hope our readers continue to embrace an objective approach to their valuation processes while performing stringent quality checks on the stocks they invest in. Happy Investing.

Levin is a former investment banker and a hedge fund analyst. He is an NIT Warangal graduate with around 5 years experience in the share market.

How to use Treasury Stock Method to Calculate Diluted Share stocks

How to use Treasury Stock Method to Calculate Diluted Shares?

How to use the Treasury Stock Method to Calculate Diluted Shares?

Hi Investors. We earlier published an article detailing how dilution affects our ownership position in the company and how it affects the calculations for PE ratio and Earnings Yield ( 1/ PE). (You can read that article here: How Dilution Affects the Company’s Valuation?)

In this post, we will cover how employee stock options are converted into common stock and learn how to calculate the incremental contribution to a number of outstanding shares (NOSH). 

Here are the topics that we will discuss today:

  1. Why stock options?
  2. What is the common term associated with stock options?
  3. Main kinds of stock options given to employees and management?
  4. What is the treasury stock method and why is it called so?
  5. Closing thoughts – the good, the bad and the ugly

It’s going to a little lengthier post. However, it will definitely be worth reading if you want to learn the dilution basics. So, let’s get started.

1. Why stock options?

Companies are increasingly rewarding their employees using stock options this provides multiple benefits:

  1. It helps align the management actions in line with the interests of the shareholders or better said managers of a business become shareholders themselves and are rewarded when their decisions in the operating activities deliver value to the shareholders
  2. Employees and managers who are rewarded stock options get the twin benefit of capital appreciation of the stock in the market and also of the lower capital gains tax for investments held over the period of 1 year.

2. What are the common terms associated with stock options?

Although there are a lot of terms we may come across when we read about stock options, almost always it will suffice to know just the meaning and relevance of a handful of terms when assessing options. Some of the most relevant that we feel will be useful for our readers are as follows:

  • Issue date: this corresponds to the date on which the underlying stock option was issued to the holder
  • Exercise date: represents the date on which the holder of the stock gains the right to exercise the option
  • Exercise price: represents the minimum price required to be attained by the shares of the company before the options can be converted into common stocks
  • Vested and non-vested shares: When a stock option is owned by an individual and he/she retains the right to exercise them when they wish so, the option is said to be vested. Non-vested shares options, on the other hand, represent those which are still owned by the company and the transfer of ownership to the individual hasn’t occurred yet.
  • In-the-money / out-the-money: When the trading price of a stock above the exercise price of the option is then said to be the in-the-money option, while it is said to out-the-money when the share price is below the exercise price (and then rendering the exercising such options useless).

3. What are the main kinds of stock options given to employees and management?

In most annual reports investors may come across different types of stock options, the common ones are (but not limited to) ESOPs or employee stock options, Restricted Stock Units (RSUs), Performance Stock Units (PSUs).

Employee Stock Options (ESOPs)

In almost all cases these represent the options offered to individuals by companies as a part of their equity compensation plans. These are usually reported by companies with relevant details like issue date, exercise date, the and exercise price. The primary catch for the employees here is that their options do not become exercisable unless and until the stock price of the company trades above the mentioned exercise price

Restricted Stock Shares (RSSs)

These are awards that entitle individuals to ownership rights to a company’s stock. Normally, these are subject to restrictions with regard to the sale of the stock or option until they become vested. The vesting event is determined by minimum service or performance conditions set by the company for the employee. However, during the restricted period, the individuals may have voting rights and the right to the dividends owed to restricted shares.

Performance Stock Shares (PSSs)

Performance Stock Shares are restricted stock shares that vest upon the achievement of performance conditions specified by the company. These shares are generally subject to sale restrictions and/or risk of forfeiture until a specific performance measurement is satisfied. Performance measurements are set by your company. During the restricted period you may have voting rights and the right to dividends paid on the restricted shares, which may be paid to you in cash or may be reinvested in additional performance shares. Once vested, the performance shares are usually no longer subject to restriction.

Also read: #19 Most Important Financial Ratios for Investors

4. What is the treasury stock method and why is it called so?

The most commonly used method within the finance industry to calculate the net additional shares (from exercising the in-the-money options and warrants) is the treasury stock method (TSM).

Here, it is important to note that the TSM makes an assumption that the proceeds the company receives from in-the-money option exercises are subsequently used to repurchase common shares in the market. Repurchasing those shares turns them into shares held in the company’s treasury, hence the eponymous title.

Implementing the treasury stock method

The broad assumptions in the TSM are as follows. Firstly, it assumes that the options and warrants are exercised at the start of the reporting period and that a company uses the proceeds to purchase common shares at the average market price during the period. This is clearly implied within the TSM formula.

Treasury stock method formula:

Additional shares outstanding = Shares from exercise – repurchased shares

Additional shares outstanding -Treasury stock method

Example:

Imagine a scenario where a company has an outstanding total of in-the-money options and warrants for 15,000 shares. Assume that the exercise price of each of these options is around ₹400. The average market price of the stock, however, for the reporting period is ₹550.

Assuming all the options and warrants outstanding are exercised, the company will generate 15,000 x ₹400 = ₹60,000 in proceeds. Using these proceeds, the company can buy ₹6,000,000 / ₹550 = ~10909 shares at the average market price. Thus, the net increase in shares outstanding is 15,000 – 10,909 = 4,091 shares.

This can also be found by simply using the last formula provided above. The net increase in shares outstanding is 15,000 (1 – 400/550) = 4,091.

Also read: How to read financial statements of a company?

5.Closing thought:  The Good, The Bad and The Ugly

Although options can be a force used for good as described at the beginning of this post it is not always a very innocuous tool. Since almost always, options are more complicated than cash payments there arises a potential for companies to manipulative the rewarding scheme to incentivize the management too much (beyond what is considered acceptable) at the expense of the shareholders.

Another problem can sometimes arise when a firm holds options or convertible debt offerings in another publicly traded company, there have been cases in the stock market history where such firms have gained majority control in the publicly traded company and subsequently initiated multiple activist campaigns against the management and in extreme cases have ended up owning the company entirely (a lot of the times at the expense of minority shareholders).

An argument which is sometimes overseen but nonetheless is credible when understanding options are that options incentive management to undertake risky decisions. These could sometime come in the ugly form of management cutting corners to influence the stock prices in the short term so that the options they hold may become exercisable. It is also not uncommon to see situations where management undertakes short-term risks that may eventually outweigh long-term gains for the shareholders.

In view of the above scenarios, a retail investor when assessing companies should look at the state of the options and the rewarding schemes when studying the management of their target company. Normally the two main things an investor needs to look for to be able to make a reasonably informed judgment include the following:

  1. The period for the options are awarded: here longer is better, something more than 3 years should be considered as satisfactory
  2. The number of options which are awarded: make sure that excessive amounts in addition to the existing cash packages are not paid out to the management and employees unless deserved.

That’s all for this post. I hope it was useful to the readers. Happy Investing.

Levin is a former investment banker and a hedge fund analyst. He is an NIT Warangal graduate with around 5 years experience in the share market.

How Dilution Affects the Company's Valuation

How Dilution Affects the Company’s Valuation?

Dilution of a company’s shares is a common scenario in the equity market. However, there is multiple effects on the valuation of the company in terms of market value and EPS (earning per share) calculation after dilution. In this post, we are going to discuss how dilution affects the company’s valuation.

We will be covering the following topics in the post today:

  1. What is dilution?
  2. What causes dilution?
  3. How to identify companies where dilution is likely?
  4. Calculation of shares outstanding after dilution.
  5. How dilution affects the company’s valuation?
  6. Bottom line

This is going to be a technical yet interesting post and we would advise our readers to read this carefully. Feel free to reach out to us or post comments in case of any doubts or clarifications.

1. What is dilution?

share dilution

Simply define dilution is the term used to describe the reduction in ownership or voting rights in a company.

Let’s understand this through the following example.

Assume a Company A’s equity is divided into 100 shares and we own 10 shares in the company, i.e we own 10% equity in the company. Now, let us assume that the company decided to fund its expansion plans by issuing new shares in the stock market (follow-on offerings). So, on the day of issue, the company issued 100 new shares in the market and a foreign firm with interests in the Indian market acquired all of the new shares issued.

Now, the company’s new equity is broken up into 200 shares out of which the foreign investor owns 100 shares (50% of equity) while we own 10 shares (5% of equity).

In the example, the follow-on offering is said to be dilutive for the company’s shareholders since their effective ownership has decreased in the firm.

Also read: Shareholding Pattern- Things that you need to know

2. What causes dilution?

Dilution can happen due to various some of the reasons are given below (may not be an exhaustive list)

  1. Follow-on offerings in capital markets
  2. Conversion of options and warrants by the holders
  3. Conversion of convertible bonds into equity
  4. Offerings of new shares to partners during acquisition or Joint-Ventures

3. How to identify companies where dilution is likely?

In most cases dilution happens when the company has desperate needs for infusing capital into its operations. Since modern financial ecosystem provides multiples routes and opportunities to achieve this aim, the most common strategies used by companies are to raise capital through debt offerings or through the issuance of new shares in the secondary public markets.

In case the company raises money through debt, this route need not always result in dilution of equity holdings for the investors. Dilution through debt happens only in case the company pledges to give its equity as collateral for a certain amount of debt.

Also read: How to Find the Shareholding Pattern of a Company?

4. How to calculate the shares outstanding after dilution for calculating market cap?

The shares outstanding after dilution would simply be as per the following equation,

Total dil. shares outstanding = common shares +newly issued shares

where, the newly issued shares could primarily come from (but not limited to) conversion of convertible preferred shares, conversion of convertible debt and also from shares issuable from stock options

This is shown by the following expression,

Newly issued shares
= shares from conversion of conv. preferred shares + convertible debt + issue of stock options

The calculation of the new shares from convertible preferred shares and convertible debt are pretty straightforward since most of the time these shares and debt are issued at a fixed conversion rate.

For example, Assume a Company ABC has issued 1000 preferred shares and 50,000 convertible bonds amounting ₹50 Lakh in debt. Also, the company on the date of issue stated that each of the 10 shares of preferred shares could be converted for 1 common share and 5,000 of the bonds could be converted for 100 common shares.

The newly issued shares post-dilution would be the sum of 100 (from preferred shares) and 1,000 (from convertible bonds) which is equal to 1,100 new shares.

(The shares issued from stock options is slightly complicated and is usually calculated using the treasury stock method. We shall review this method in another post.)

If you are new to stocks and want to learn stock market investing from scratch, then check out this amazing online course- How to pick winning stocks? This course is currently available at a discount. Enroll now and start your journey in the exiciting world of stock market today.

5. How dilution affects the company’s valuation?

Dilution affects the company’s valuation of terms of its different calculations. Here’s how dilution impacts the company’s market value and eps calculation-

Market Value

Due to the rise in the total number of shares outstanding after the dilution, Market Value may change significantly after dilution, depending on the extent of the dilutive effect of the newly issued shares.

The formula for calculating Market Value remains the same, except that we will now use.

Total Diluted Shares Outstanding instead of Total Common Shares Outstanding.

Market Value = Price per share Total Diluted Shares Outstanding

Earnings per share

The impact on earnings per share due to dilution is may become quite profound depending on the extent of dilution and is very important since EPS is very commonly used by investors in the final calculation of the intrinsic value of a stock.

Since companies normally get a tax benefit for interest paid on debt, after dilution this benefit is no longer applicable and we may see our net income being boosted by the after-tax amount of debt.

Another change that happens is due to dilution of the convertible preferred shares, in case the preferred shareholders were paid the dividend out of the net income of the company earlier, they need be paid anymore after dilution since they have the same status and rank as the common equity holders in the company. The change in the formula due to the dilution is illustrated by the following expressions,

The basic EPS of a company is given by the following formula,

The diluted EPS of a company is using from the below formula,

diluted eps

Also read: #19 Most Important Financial Ratios for Investors

Bottom line

In this post. we understood the impact of dilution on the valuation with the help of equity dilution example. Today, we learned that dilution can have a significant impact on the Market Value and EPS calculations of a company and may distort the true value if it is not incorporated during the analysis of a company. 

Since dilution mostly comes at the expense of the common investor, we advise that our readers scrutinize the annual report to find whether dilution is good or bad for them. A careful look at the financial statements is required to make the necessary changes during dilution analysis. Afterall, a decrease in the existing shareholder’s ownership in a company also means a decreased profits. 

That’s all for this post. I hope this is helpful to the readers. Happy Investing.

Levin is a former investment banker and a hedge fund analyst. He is an NIT Warangal graduate with around 5 years experience in the share market.

Dividend Discount Model (DDM)

Stock Valuation: Dividend Discount Model (DDM)

Stock Valuation: Dividend Discount Model (DDM)

When you are investing for the long-term, it can be sensibly concluded that the only cash flow that you will receive from a publicly traded company will be the dividends, till you sell the stock.

Therefore, before investing it may be justifiable to calculate the dividends cash flow that you’ll receive while holding the stock. Dividend discount model (DDM) uses the same approach to find the worth of a stock.

In financial words, dividend discount model is a valuation method used to find the intrinsic value of a company by discounting the predicted dividends that the company will be giving (to its shareholders in future) to its present value.

Once, this value is calculated, it can be compared with the current market price of the stock to find whether the stock is overvalued or decently valued.

Don’t worry if you find this concept a little difficult to grasp right now. Read the post until the very end and this model will become crystal clear to you.

What is Dividend Discount Model (DDM)?

Dividend discount model aims to find the intrinsic value of a stock by estimating the expected value of the cash flow it generates in future through dividends. This valuation model is derived from the net present value (NPV) and time value of money (TVM) concept.

Dividend discount model uses this simple formula:

dividend discount model

Here,

P= value of stock
D= Dividend per share
r= Discount rate (also known as required rate of return or cost of equity)
g= expected dividend growth rate.

Assumptions: While calculating the value of a stock using dividend discount model, the two big assumptions made are future dividend payments and growth rate.

Limitations: Dividend discount model (DDM) does not work for companies that do not provide dividends.

Also read: Valuation Basics: What is the Time Value of Money (TVM)?

Calculations

A. Dividend growth rate (g):

The dividend growth rate (g) can be found using the company’s historical dividend growth.

Further, the dividend growth rate can also be calculated using return on equity (ROE) and retention rate values. Here’s a simple formula to calculate dividend growth rate:

Dividend growth rate = ROE * Retention rate

{Where, retention rate = (Net income – dividends)/ Net income = (1 – payout ratio) }

Therefore, Dividend growth rate = ROE * (1 – payout ratio)

ROE and payout ratio can be determined using company’s financial statements. An easier approach would be to refer financial websites like Money control, investing etc. You can find these values on most of the financial websites.

Also read: #19 Most Important Financial Ratios for Investors.

B. Discount rate or Rate of return (r):

In the dividend discount model, if you want to get an annual return of 10% for your investment, then you should consider the rate of return (r) as 0.10 or 10%.

Further, r can also be calculated using Capital asset pricing model (CAPM). Under this model, the discount rate is equal to the sum of risk-free rate and risk premium. The risk premium is calculated as the difference between the market rate of return and the risk-free rate of return, multiplied by the beta.

capm

For example, for a company, if the beta is 1.5, the risk-free rate is 3% and the market rate of return is 7%.

Risk premium= ((7% – 3%)x1.5) = 6%.

Discount rate, r= risk free rate + risk premium = 3% + 6%= 9%

TYPES OF DIVIDEND DISCOUNT MODELS 

Now that you have understood the basics of Dividend Discount Model, let us move forward and learn three types of Dividend Discount Models.

  1. Zero Growth Dividend Discount Model
  2. Constant Growth Dividend Discount Model 
  3. Variable Growth Dividend Discount Model

1. Zero Growth Dividend Discount Model

The Zero growth dividend discount model assumes that all the dividends that are paid by the company remain same forever (until infinity).

Therefore, here the dividend growth rate (g) is zero.

As dividend is constant throughout the company life
The dividend is first year= dividend in second year = dividend in the third year…
Div1= Div2= Div3 = Div4 …. =Div

Here is the share value formula for the zero growth dividend discount model:

Or Value of stock (P) = Div /r

Let us understand this further with the help of an example.

Example 1: Assume company ABC gives a constant annual dividend of Rs 1 per share till perpetuity (lasting forever). The required rate of return on the stock is 5%. Then what should be the purchasing price of the stock of company ABC?

Here, Expected return/ required rate of return (r) = 5%

Dividend (Div) = Rs 1 = Constant

Value of stock (P) = Div/r =1/0.05 = Rs 20.

Therefore, the purchasing price of the stock ABC should be less than Rs 20 to get the required rate of return of 5% per annum.

Limitations of Zero growth dividend discount model:

As the company grows bigger, it is expected to increase company’s dividend per share. The dividend cannot be constant till perpetuity.

Also read: Why You Need to Learn- Porter’s Five Forces of Competitive Analysis?

2. Constant Growth Dividend Discount Model

This dividend discount model assumes that dividends grow at a fixed percentage annually. They are not variable and are constant throughout the life of the company. The most common model used in the constant growth dividend discount model is Gordon growth model (GGM)

Gordon Growth Model (GGM):

The Gordon growth model for DCF is quite simple and straightforward. Here are the three values required to calculate the share value of a company:

  • Div= Dividend at the zeroth year.
  • r = company’s cost of capital/ required rate of return
  • g=constant growth rate of dividends till perpetuity

Here, Div1= Dividend per share expected to be received at the end of first year = Div (1+g)

For the constant growth dividend discount model,

dividend discount model with constant growth

Note: If you want to learn how the derive the above formula, you can find it here.

Let us solve an example to find the share price of a company with Gordon growth model.

Example 2: Assume a company QPR has a constant dividend growth rate of 4% per annum for perpetuity. This year the company has given a dividend of Rs 5 per share. Further, the required rate of return for the company is 10% per annum. Then, what should be the purchase price for a share of company QPR?

Here,

  • Div= Dividend at zeroth year = Rs 5
  • r = required rate of return = 10%
  • g= constant growth rate of dividends till perpetuity= 4%

Div1= Dividend per share expected to be received at the end of first year = Div (1+g) = 5 (1+0.04) = Rs 5.2

Value of share (P) = Div1/ (r-g) = 5.2 / (0.1 -0.04) = 5.2/0.06 = Rs 86.67

Therefore, you should purchase the stock at a price below Rs 86.67 to get a required rate of return of 10% per annum.

Limitations of Gordon Growth Model:

Here are few genuine limitations to Gordon growth model while performing constant growth dividend discount model

  1. The constant growth rate for perpetuity is not valid for most of the companies. Moreover, Newer companies have fluctuating dividend growth rate in the initial years.
  2. The calculation is sensitive to the inputs. Even a small change in the input assumption can greatly alter expected value of the share.
  3. High growth problem. If the dividend growth rate becomes higher than the required rate of return i.e. g>r, then the value of the share price will become negative, which is not feasible.

Also read: SWOT Analysis for Stocks: A Simple Yet Effective Study Tool.

3. The multi-level/Variable Growth Dividend Discount Model:

The multi-level growth rate for dividends model may divide the growth rate into two or three phases (according to the assumption).

In the two-stage growth rate DDM Model, the dividends grow at a high rate initially followed by a lower constant rate for later years. (Also read: Supernormal dividend growth model)

Further, in the three-stage growth DDM Model, the first stage will be a fast initial phase, then a slower transition phase an then ultimately ends with a lower rate for the infinite period. For example- A company XYZ’s dividend may grow at 5% rate for the first 7 years, 3% rate for the next 4 years and finally 2% rate in perpetuity.

If you are interested to read more, here is an amazing source to learn the multi-level growth rate dividend discount model.

Limitation: 

The biggest drawback with the multi-level growth rate of dividend discount model is that’s it’s really difficult to assume the growth rate in small specific periods. There are a lot of uncertainties involved while making these assumptions when the growth is distributed at multiple levels.

Problems of forecasting value using DDM:

Here are few of the common limitations of forecasting share value using the dividend discount model:

  • Plenty of assumptions about the dividend growth and company’s future.
  • This valuation model is good only as far the assumptions are good.
  • Most of the inputs of DDM model keeps on changing and susceptible to error.
  • Not feasible for few categories of stocks like Growth stocks. These stocks pay little or no dividends but rather use the company profit in their growth. DDM might never find these stock suitable for investment no matter how good the stock is.

Also read: Efficient Market Hypothesis -The Only Theory That You Need to Read Today.

Conclusion:

Most of the analysts ignore dividend discount model while valuing the stock price because of its limitations as discussed above.

However, for few specific stocks (like stable dividend paying stocks), DDM remains a useful tool for evaluating stocks. Dividend discount model is a simple and straightforward method of stock valuation. It demonstrates how the stock value can be calculated by a simple approach of discounting future cash flows.

Anyways, I will highly recommend to never invest in a stock based on just DDM valuation. Use other financial tools like ROE, PE etc to cross-verify the conclusions before investing.

In the end, I would like to add that although DDM is criticised for the limited use, however, it has proved useful in the past. In addition, here is an amazing quote regarding valuation by one of the greatest investor of all time, Warren Buffett.

“It is better to be approximately right than precisely wrong.” -Warren Buffett

Also read: How to do the Relative Valuation of stocks?

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

Time Value of Money

Valuation Basics: What is the Time Value of Money (TVM)?

The Time value of money (TVM) is one of the most basic concepts of finance.

The underlying principle of the time value of money is that the Rupee in your hand today is worth more than the same Rupee that you will receive in future.

For example- If I give you an option to choose between Rs 1 Crore today or the same amount next year, what would you choose?

I’m sure that that your answer would be- Rs 1 Crore today.

Why? Because you don’t trust that I’ll give you Rs 1 Crore next year. So, you might be thinking to seize the opportunity and take Rs 1 crore today while the offer is still available. Right?…KIDDING!!

Here, you should choose Rs 1 Crore today because the money available in hand today has more value compared to the same money that you will get in future because of its potential earning capacity.

Money has the potential to grow over time. It can earn interest.

For example, if you deposit Rs 1 crore today in your saving account which gives 5% interest per year, then the net value will become Rs 1.05 crores next year. In short, you will earn an additional Rs 5 lakh.

Because of this potential earning capacity, money in hand today is more valuable than the same disbursement of money that you receive tomorrow.

Basic Time Value of Money Formula:

Now that you have understood the concept of time value of money, here is the basic formula used to find the future value of money.


Equation 1:

future value equation

Here, 

FV = Future value of money
PV= Present value of money
i= interest rate
t= no of years

The above formula is used to find how much is the worth of your present value in future given the rate of interest and time frame. Let us understand this further with the help of an example.

Example 1: What will be the future value of Rs 20 lakh after 1 year if the interest rate is 10% per annum?

Here, PV= Rs 20,00,000; i= 0.10; t= 1

Using equation 1:

FV = PV * (1 + i) ^t = 20,00,000(1+0.10) =  22,00,000

Therefore, the future value of Rs 20 lakhs after 1 year with an interest rate of 10% will be Rs 22 lakhs.

Also read: #19 Most Important Financial Ratios for Investors


Equation 2:

We can also find the Present value (PV) by altering the equation-1 (when the rate of interest and timeframe are given).

Here is the equation of the Present Value of Money:

present value equation

Let’s solve a problem to find the present value of money given its future value, interest rate, and time frame.

Example 2: What is the present value of Rs.5,000 payable 3 years hence, if the interest rate is 10 % per annum?

Here, FV=5,000; i=10%; t=3
PV = 5000/ (1.10)^3 = Rs.3756.57

Therefore, the present value will be Rs 3,756.57.

In other words, Rs 3,756.57 will turn into a future value of Rs 5,000 after 3 years if the interest rate is 10% per annum.


Effect of compounding period:

Apart from time and interest, there is also a third component which influences the future value of money. It is the compounding frequency/period.

Compounding period has a huge effect on the TVM calculation. Let’s understand this with the help of an example.

Suppose, the Present value of money (PV) = Rs 10,00,000
Interest rate (i) = 10%
No of years (t) = 1

Quick note: For the given compounding period (n), the FV formula will become

FV = PV * (1 + i/n) ^t*n

Where: n=number of compounding periods per year

Here we will consider four scenarios where the amount compounds yearly, quarterly, monthly and daily in different scenarios.

Scenario 1: Compounds annually
FV = 10,00,000 [ 1 + 0.1] ^1  = 11,00,000

Scenario 2: Compounds 4 times a year
FV = 10,00,000 [ 1 + (0.1/4)] ^1*4 = 11,03,813

Scenario 3: Compounds 12 times a year
FV = 10,00,000 [ 1 + (0.1/12)] ^1*12 = 11,04,713

Scenario 4: Compounds daily for a year
FV = 10,00,000 [ 1 + 0.1/365] ^1*365 =11,05,156

From the above four scenarios, you can notice that the future value is highest in the scenario 4 when the money compounds daily for a year.

Clearly, the future value of the money increases with the compounding frequency.

Also read: The Power of Compounding- Secret of Making Money


Valuing a stock using TVM:

Suppose you have an opportunity to invest in a dividend stock.

This stock has a good past record of giving dividends to its shareholders and you can safely conclude that it will give a consistent dividend of Rs 10 per year for the upcoming 4 years.

You also forecasted that you will be able to sell that stock at a price of Rs 500 at the end of 4th year. Further, here you want an annual return of 15% per year on your investment.

What should be the purchase price of that stock?

You can calculate the purchase price using the concept of time value of money.

Here, you already know the values of all the money that you will receive in future i.e from year 1 to 4. What you need to do next is to find the present value of all these money that you’ll get in future and add them up.

If the net price is cheaper than the market value of the stock (as of today), then you should purchase the stock.

Here is a detailed analysis of the present value from the above example:

Year Future Value (FV) –In Rs Formula- Present Value (PV) –In Rs
0 0 0 0
1 10 PV = FV / [1 + 0.15]^1 8.7
2 10 PV = FV / [1 + 0.15]^2 7.56
3 10 PV = FV / [1 + 0.15]^3 6.58
4 510* PV = FV / [1 + 0.15]^4 291.59
Total 314.43

*In the fourth year, the future value will be the sum of dividend plus sell off-price i.e. Rs 10 + Rs 500 = Rs 510.

Here, your purchase price should be less than Rs 313.43 if you want to get an annual return of 15% per annum (assuming a constant dividend of Rs 10 per year and a selling price of Rs 500 at the end of the fourth year).

This is the simplest example of how you can use the time value of money (TVM) concept for valuing stocks. The same concept is used while finding NPV (net present value) in stock valuation methodologies like discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis.

Also read: How To Select A Stock To Invest In Indian Stock Market For Consistent Returns?

Conclusion: 

Time Value of Money (TVM) is one of the fundamental concepts of finance.

It states that Rupee in hand today is worth more than the rupee that you’ll receive in future. If you are given a choice to take money today or tomorrow, always choose the first option.

Further, TMV depends on three factors- time period, interest rate and the number of compounding periods per year. The higher the time frame, interest rate, and compounding period per year, the higher will be the future value of money.

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

How to do the Relative Valuation of stocks

How to do the Relative Valuation of stocks?

How to do the relative valuation of stocks?

“A great company is not a great investment if you pay too much for the stock.“
– Benjamin Graham, father of value investing.

Valuation is one of the most important aspects of investing in stocks. You might be able to find a good company, but if you not evaluating its price correctly, then it might turn out to be a bad investment.

There are two basic ways to do the valuation of stocks:

  1. Absolute valuation
  2. Relative valuation

The absolute valuation tries to determine the intrinsic value of the company based on the estimated free cash flows discounted to their present value.

The discounted cash flow model (DCF) is the most common approach for the absolute valuation.

However, there are few limitations of using absolute valuation as you will require to make few assumptions and the results are only as good as inputs.

Nevertheless, this post is not focused on the absolute valuation and we’ll discuss more in another post where you will require to understand a lot of complex terms like future free cash flow projections, discount rate (weighted average cost of capital- WACC) etc to find the estimated present value.

In this post, we are going to discuss how to do the relative valuation of stocks.

Relative valuation of stocks is an alternative to the absolute valuation.

It’s an easier approach to determine whether a company is worth investing or not.

Relative valuation compares the company’s value to that of its competitors to find the company’s financial worth.

It’s similar to comparing the different houses in the same locality to find the worth of a house. Let’s say if most of the 3BHK apartment in a locality costs around 70 lakhs and you are able to find a similar 3 BHK apartment which costs 50 lakhs, then you can consider it cheap.

Here, you do not find the true worth of the apartment but just compare its price with the similar competitors.

Also read: How To Select A Stock To Invest In Indian Stock Market For Consistent Returns?

Tools for the Relative valuation of stocks:

There are a number of financial ratios that you can use to do the relative valuation of the Indian stocks. Few of the most common ones are described below:

1. Price to earnings (PE) ratio

This is one of the most famous relative valuation tool used to investors all across the world.

The concept of PE ratio is described beautifully in the Benjamin Graham’s book “THE INTELLIGENT INVESTOR”, which Warren buffet considers as one of the best book ever written on investing. I will highly recommend you to read this book.

PE ratio is calculated by:

P/E ratio = (Market Price per share/ Earnings per share)

However, PE ratio value varies from industry to industry, therefore always compare the PE of companies only in the same industry.

As a thumb rule, a company with lower PE ratio is considered under-valued compared to another company in the same sector with higher PE ratio.

2. Price to book value (P/BV) ratio

The book value is referred as the net asset value of a company. It is calculated as total assets minus intangible assets (patents, goodwill) and liabilities.

Therefore, Price to book value (P/B) ratio can be calculated using this formula:

P/B ratio = (Market price per share/ book value per share)

As a thumb rule, companies with lower P/B ratio is undervalued compared to the companies with higher P/B ratio. The P/BV ratio is compared only with the companies in the same industry.

3. Return on equity (ROE)

It is the amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity. ROE can be calculated as:

ROE= (Net income/ average stockholder equity)

It shows how good is the company in rewarding its shareholders. A higher ROE means that the company generates a higher profit from the money that the shareholders have invested. Always invest in companies with high ROE.

Also read: 8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know

How to estimate the relative value of stocks?

For estimating the relative value of stocks, you need to set an accurate benchmark. The companies that you are comparing should be from the same industry and it’s even better if they have similar market capitalization (for example, a large-cap should be compared large-cap companies).

Let’s say that there are 5 companies in an industry and the average price to earnings ratio of the industry turns out to be 20.

Now, if the price to earnings value of the company that you are validating is 15, then it can be estimated to be relatively cheaper compared to the stocks in the same industry.

Similarly, you can use multiple financial ratios to find the relative value of the stocks.

Also read: #19 Most Important Financial Ratios for Investors

Limitations of relative valuations:

No valuation technique can be perfect. There are few limitations of relative valuations which are discussed below:

  1. The relative valuation approach does not give an exact result (unlike discounted cash flow) as this approach is based on the comparison.
  2. It’s assumed that the market has valued the companies correctly. If all the companies in the Industry are overvalued, then the relative valuation approach might give a misleading result for the company which you are investigating.

Where to find the relative multiples for comparing Indian stocks?

There are a number of financial websites where you can find the financial ratios of Indian stocks. For example- Money control, Investing, Screener, Screener etc

I’ve already discussed most of these websites in my earlier posts. You can read more about them here.

In this post, I’m going to converse about a new website which I hadn’t discussed in any of my earlier articles. It’s Equity Master.

Equity master is an amazing website for stock research. While researching a company, you can get its 5-year data from the factsheets.

Similarly, if you want to compare two companies, this option is all available on the Equity master.

Just go on ‘Research it’ on the top menu bar and click on ‘Compare company’. Enter the name of the two companies and you’ll get the comparisons.

equity research

Here is the result that you will get if you compare Hindustan Unilever with Godrej Consumers:

equity master stock compare

It’s an amazing website. Just play around and get familiar with the website.

Conclusion:

Relative valuation of stocks is a good alternative to the absolute valuation. You can use this approach for a simple yet effective stock picking.

If you want to learn how to invest in Indian stock market from scratch, feel free to check this amazing online course for beginners- “HOW TO PICK WINNING STOCKS?” The course is currently available at a discount.

That’s all for this post. I hope it is useful to you.

Please comment below if you have any questions. I’ll be happy to help.

Tags: Relative valuation of stocks, relative valuation steps, relative valuation advantages, relative valuation model

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

19 Most Important Financial Ratios for Investors

#19 Most Important Financial Ratios for Investors

#19 most important Financial ratios for investors: 

Reading the financial reports of a company can be a very tedious job. The annual reports of many of the company are over 100 pages which consist of a number of financial jargons.

If you do not understand what these terms mean, you won’t be able to read the reports efficiently.

Nevertheless, there are a number of financial ratios that has made the life of investors very simple. Now, you do not need to make a number of calculations and you can just use these financial ratios to understand the gist.

In this post, I’m going to explain 19 most important financial ratios for the investors. We will cover different types of ratios like valuation ratios, profitability ratios, liquidity ratios, efficiency ratios and debt ratios.

Please note that you do not need to mug up all these ratios or formulas. You can always google these terms anytime (or when you need). Just understand them and learn how & where they are used. These financial ratios are created to make your life easier, not tough.

Let’s get started.

19 most important Financial ratios for investors:


Valuation Ratios

valuation ratios

These ratios are also called price ratios and are used to find whether the share price is over-valued, under-valued or reasonably valued.

Valuation ratios are relative and are generally more helpful in comparing the companies in the same sector. For example, these ratios won’t be of that much use if you compare the valuation ratio of a company in an automobile industry with another company in the banking sector. Here are few of the most important Financial ratios for investors to validate a company’s valuation.

1. P/E ratio: 

Price to earnings ratio is one of the most widely used ratios by the investors throughout the world. PE ratio is calculated by:

P/E ratio = (Market Price per share/ Earnings per share)

PE ratio value varies from industry to industry.

For example, the industry PE of Oil and refineries is around 10-12. On the other hand, PE ratio of FMCG & personal cared is around 55-50. Therefore, you cannot compare the PE of a company from Oil sector with another company from FMCG sector. In such scenario, you will always find oil companies undervalued compared to FMCG companies.

A company with lower PE ratio is considered under-valued compared to another company in the same sector with higher PE ratio.

2. P/B ratio:

The book value is referred as the net asset value of a company. It is calculated as total assets minus intangible assets (patents, goodwill) and liabilities.

Price to book value (P/B) ratio can be calculated using this formula:

P/B ratio = (Market price per share/ book value per share)

Here, you can find book value per share by dividing the book value by the number of outstanding shares.

As a thumb rule, a company with lower P/B ratio is undervalued compared to the companies with higher P/B ratio. However, this ratio also varies from industry to industry.

3. PEG ratio:

PEG ratio or Price/Earnings to growth ratio is used to find the value of a stock by taking in consideration company’s earnings growth.

This ratio is considered to be more useful than PE ratio as PE ratio completely ignores the company’s growth rate. PEG ratio can be calculated using this formula:

PEG ratio = (PE ratio/ Projected annual growth in earnings)

A company with PEG < 1 is good for investment.

Stocks with PEG ratio less than 1 are considered undervalued relative to their EPS growth rates, whereas those with ratios of more than 1 are considered overvalued.

4. EV/EBITDA

This is a turnover valuation ratio. EV/EBITDA is a good valuation tool for companies with lots of debts.

Here,  EV = (Market capitalization + debt – Cash)

EBITDA = Earnings before interest tax depreciation amortization

A company with lower EV/EBITDA value ratio means that the price is reasonable.

5. P/S ratio:

The stock’s price/sales ratio (P/S) ratio measures the price of a company’s stock against its annual sales. It can be calculated using the formula:

P/S ratio = (Price per share/ Annual sales per share)

P/S ratio can be used to compare companies in the same industry. Lower P/S ratio means that the company is undervalued.

6. Dividend yield:

Dividends are the profits that the company shares with its shareholders as decided by the board of directors. Dividend yield can be calculated as:

Dividend yield = (Dividend per share/ price per share)

Now, what dividend yield is good?

It depends on the investor’s preference. A growing company may not give good dividend as it uses that profit for its expansion. However, the capital appreciation in a growing company can be large.

On the other hand, well established large companies give a good dividend. But their growth rate is saturated. Therefore, it depends totally on investors whether they want a high yield stock or growing stock.

As a rule of thumb, a consistent and increasing dividend over past few years should be preferred.

7. Dividend payout:

Companies do not distribute its entire profit to its shareholders. It may keep few portion of the profit for its expansion or to carry out new plans and share the rest with its stockholders.

Dividend payout tells you the percentage of the profit distributed as dividend. It can be calculated as:

Dividend payout = (Dividend/ net income)

For an investor, steady dividend payout is favorable. Moreover, dividend/Income investors should be more careful to look into dividend payout ratio before investing in dividend stocks.

Also read: Where should I invest my money?


Profitability ratio

liquidity ratio

Profitability ratios are used to measure the effectiveness of a company to generate profits from its business. Few of the most important financial ratios for investors to validate company’s profitability ratios are ROA, ROE, EPS, Profit margin & ROCE as discussed below.

1. Return on assets (ROA)

Return on assets (ROA) is an indicator of how profitable a company is relative to its total assets. It can be calculated as:

ROA = (Net income/ Average total assets)

A company with higher ROA is better for investment as it means that the company’s management is efficient in using its assets to generate earnings. Always select companies with high ROA to invest.

2. Earnings per share (EPS)

EPS is the annual earnings of a company expressed per common share value. It is calculated using the formula

EPS = (Net Income – Dividends on Preferred Stock) / Average Outstanding Shares

As a rule of thumb, companies with increasing Earnings per share for the last couple of year can be considered as a healthy sign.

3. Return on equity (ROE)

ROE is the amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity. It can be calculated as:

ROE= (Net income/ average stockholder equity)

It shows how good is the company in rewarding its shareholders. A higher ROE means that the company generates a higher profit from the money that the shareholders have invested. Always invest in companies with high ROE.

4. Net Profit margin

Increased revenue doesn’t always mean increased profits. Profit margin reveals how good a company is at converting revenue into profits available for shareholders. It can be calculated as:

Profit margin = (Net income/sales)

A company with steady and increasing profit margin is suitable for investment.

5. Return on capital employed (ROCE)

ROCE measures the company’s profit and efficiency in terms of the capital it employes. It can be calculated as

ROCE= (EBIT/Capital Employed)

Where EBIT = Earnings before interest and tax

Capital employed is the total number of capital that a company utilizes in order to generate profit. It can be calculated as the sum of shareholder’s equity and debt liabilities.

As a rule of thumb, invest in companies with higher ROCE.

Also read: #27 Key terms in share market that you should know


Liquidity ratio

liquidity ratio

Liquidity ratios are used to check the company’s capability to meet its short-term obligations (like debts, borrowings etc). A company with low liquidity cannot meet its short-term debts and may face difficulties to run it’s business efficiently. Here are few of the most important financial ratios for investors to check the company’s liquidity:

1. Current Ratio:

It tells you the ability of a company to pay its short-term liabilities with short-term assets. Current ratio can be calculated as:

Current ratio = (Current assets / current liabilities)

While investing, companies with a current ratio greater than 1 should be preferred. This means that the current assets should be greater than current liabilities of a company.

2. Quick ratio:

It is also called as acid test ratio. Current ratio takes accounts of the assets that can pay the debt for the short term.

Quick ratio = (Current assets – Inventory) / current liabilities

The quick ratio doesn’t consider inventory as current assets as it assumes that selling inventory will take some time and hence cannot meet the current liabilities.

A company with the quick ratio greater that one means that it can meet its short-term debts and hence quick ratio greater than 1 should be preferred.


Efficiency ratio

Efficiency ratios

Efficiency ratios are used to study a company’s efficiency to employ resources invested in its fixed and capital assets. Here are three of the most important financial ratios for investors to check the company’s efficiency:

1.Asset turnover ratio:

It tells how good a company is at using its assets to generate revenue. Asset turnover ratio can be calculated as:

Asset turnover ratio = (sales/ Average total assets)

Higher the asset turnover ratio, better it’s for the company as it means that the company is generating more revenue per rupee spent.

2. Inventory turnover ratio:

This ratio is used for those industries which use inventories like the automobile, FMCG, etc.

A company should not collect piles of shares and should sell its inventories as early as possible. Inventory turnover ratio helps to check the efficiency of cycling inventory. It can be calculated as:

Inventory turnover ratio = (Costs of goods sold/ Average inventory)

Inventory turnover ratio tells how good a company is at replenishing its inventories.

3. Average collection period:

Average collection period is used to check how long company takes to collect the payment owed by its receivables.

It is calculated by dividing the average balance of account receivable by total net credit sales and multiplying the quotient by the total number of days in the period.

Average collection period = (AR * Days)/ Credit sales

Where AR = Average amount of accounts receivable

Credit sales= Total amount of net credit sales in the period

Average collection period should be lower as higher ratio means that the company is taking too long to collect the receivables and hence is unfavorable for the operations of the company.

Also read: 10 Must Read Books For Stock Market Investors.


Debt Ratio

debt ratio

Debt or solvency or leverage ratios are used to determine a company’s ability to meet its long-term liabilities. They are used to calculate how much debt a company has at its current financial situation. Here are the two most important Financial ratios for investors to check debt:

1. Debt/equity ratio:

It is used to check how much capital amount is borrowed (debt) vs that of contributed by the shareholders (equity) in a company.

As a thumb rule, invest in companies with debt to equity ratio less than 1 as it means that the debts are less than the equity.

2. Interest coverage ratio:

It is used to check how well the company can meet its interest payment obligation. Interest coverage ratio can be calculated by:

Interest coverage ratio = (EBIT/ Interest expense)

Where EBIT = Earnings before interest and taxes

The interest coverage ratio is a measure of the number of times a company could make the interest payments on its debt with its EBIT. A higher interest coverage ratio is preferable for a company as it reflects- debt serving ability of the company, on-time repayment capability and credit rating for new borrowings

Always invest in a company with high and stable Interest coverage ratio. As a thumb rule, avoid investing in companies with interest coverage ratio less than 1, as it may be a sign of trouble and might mean that the company has not enough funds to pay its interests.

If you are new to stock market and want to learn to select good stocks for investing, here is an amazing online course on HOW TO PICK WINNING STOCKS for beginners. Check it out now.


That’s all. I hope this post on the most important Financial ratios for investors is useful to the readers.

In case I missed any important financial ratio, feel free to comment below.

Tags: key financial ratios, most important Financial ratios for investors, must know financial ratios, most important Financial ratios for investors to stock research, most important financial ratios to analyze a company, ratio analysis for investment decision, list of investment ratios, key financial ratios formulas

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

How to read financial statements of a company

How to read financial statements of a company?

How to read financial statements of a company?

If you want to invest successfully in the stock market, you need to learn how to read and understand the financial reports of a company. Financial statements are tools to evaluate the financial health of the company.

In this post, I am going to teach you the basics of how to read financial statements of a company.

To be honest, you won’t find this post very interesting. Many of the points might sound complex.

However, it’s really important that you learn how to read financial statements of a company. Reading and understanding the financials of a company differentiates an investor from a speculator.

So, let’s get started.

First of all, a few things that you need to know.

Where can you get the financial statements of a company?

You can find the financial statements of a company in any of the following sites:

  1. BSE/NSE Website
  2. Company’s website
  3. Financial websites (like screener, money control, investing etc)

Further, if you are using any other source, make sure that the reports are correct and not tempered.

In India, Securities exchange board of India (SEBI) regulates the financials announced by the company and try to keep it as fair as possible.

Now, let us understand the different financial statements of a company.

The financials of a company are split into three key sections. They are:

  1. Balance sheet
  2. Income statement (Also called profit & loss statement)
  3. Cash flow statement.

Let’s understand each statement one-by-one.

How to read financial statements of a company?

1. Balance Sheet

A balance sheet is a financial statement that compares the assets and liabilities of a company to find the shareholder’s equity at a specific time.

The balance sheet adheres to the following formula:

Assets = Liabilities + Shareholders’ Equity

Here, do not get confused by the term ‘shareholder’s equity’. It is just another name for ‘net worth’.  The above formula can be also written as:

Assets – Liabilities = Shareholder’s Equity

You can easily understand this with an example from day to day life. If you own a computer, car, house etc then it can be considered as your asset. Now your personal loans, credit card dues etc are your liabilities. When you subtract your liabilities from your assets, you will get your net worth.

The same is applicable to companies. However, here we define net worth as the shareholder’s equity.

Now, why are balance sheets important?

The balance sheet helps an investor to judge how a company is managing its financials. The three balance sheet segments- Assets, liabilities, and equity, give investors an idea as to what the company owns and owes, as well as the amount invested by shareholders.

Key elements of a balance sheet:

Assets and liabilities are the key elements of a balance sheet. Let’s define both of these to understand them in details:

Assets:

It is an economic value that a company controls with an expectation that it will provide future benefit. Assets can be cash, land, property, inventories etc

Assets can be broadly categorized into:

  • Current (short-term) assets: These are those assets that can be quickly liquidated into cash (within 12 months). For example cash and cash equivalents, inventories, account receivables etc.
  • Non-Current (Fixed) assets: Those assets which take more than 12 months to converted into cash. For example- Land, property, equipment, long-term investments, Intangible assets (like patents, copyrights, trademarks) etc.

The sum of these assets is called the total assets of a company.

Liabilities: 

It is an obligation that a company has to pay in future due to its past actions like borrowing money in terms of loans for business expansion purpose etc

Like assets, it can also be broadly divided into two segments:

  • Current liabilities: These are the obligations that need to be paid within 12 months. For example payroll, account payable, taxes, short-term debts etc.
  • Non-current (Long-term) liabilities- There are those liabilities that need to be paid after 12 months. For example long-term borrowings like term loans, debentures, deferred tax liabilities, mortgage liabilities (payable after 1 year), lease payments, trade payable etc.

Now, let us understand these segments with the help of the balance sheet of a company from the Indian stock market.

Here is the balance sheet of ASIAN PAINTS for the fiscal year 2016-17. I have downloaded this report from the company’s website here.

Please note that there are always at least 2 columns on the balance sheet for consecutive fiscal years. It helps the readers to monitor the year-on-year progress.

balance sheet asian paints 201617

Source: https://www.asianpaints.com/more/investors/annual-reports.html

Although the balance sheet looks complicated, however, once you learn the basic structure, it’s easy to understand how to read financial statements of a company.

Few points to note from the balance sheet of Asian Paints:

  1. There are three segments in the balance sheet of Asian paints: Assets, equity, and liability.
  2. It adheres the basic formula of the balance sheet: Assets = Liabilities + Shareholder’s equity. Please note that the first column of asset (TOTAL ASSETS = 9335.60) is equal to the second & third column of equity and liabilities (TOTAL EQUITY & LIABILITY = 9335.60).

There are much more points to cover in balance sheet topic, however, it’s not possible to explain everything in a single blog post. You can learn in great depth about balance sheet in my online course- HOW TO PICK WINNING STOCKS? Check it out now.

Now, let us move to the second important financial statement of a company.

2. Income Statement:

This is also called profit and loss statement.

An income statement summarizes the revenues, costs, and expenses incurred during a specific period of time (usually a fiscal quarter or year).

The basic equation on which a profit & loss statement is based is:

Revenues – Expenses = Profit

In simple words, what a company ‘takes in’ is called revenue and what a company ‘takes out’ is called expenses. The difference in the revenues and expenses is net profit or loss.

The fundamental structure of an income statement:

Revenue
– Cost of goods sold (COGS)
——————————————-
= Gross Profit
– Operating expenses
——————————————-
= Operating Income
– Interest expense
– Income taxes
——————————————–
= Net Income

Note: The revenue is called TOP LINE and net income is called the bottom line in the income statement.

Most of the investors check the income statement of a company to find its earning. Moreover, they look for the growth in the earnings. It’s preferable to invest in a profit-making company. A company cannot grow if the underlying business is not making money.

Here is the Income statement of Asian paints for the Year 2016-17:

profit and loss statments asian paints 201617

Here are a few points that you should note form the income statement of Asian Paints:

  1. The top line (revenue) increased by 8.04% in the fiscal year 2016-17.
  2. On the other hand, the bottom line (net profit) increased by 11.84% (Rs 1802.76 Cr –> Rs 2016.24 Cr) in the from the fiscal year 2015-16 to the fiscal year 2016-17.
  3. This shows that the management has been able to increase the profits are a better pace compared to the sales. This is a healthy sign for the company.

For Asian paints, the diluted EPS also increased from Rs 18.19 in the year 2015-16 to Rs 20.22 in year 2016.17. This is again a positive sign for the company.

Also read: #19 Most Important Financial Ratios for Investors

3. Cashflow statement:

Last part of a company’s finances is its cash flow statement.

Cash flow statement (also known as statements of cash flow) shows the flow of cash and cash equivalents during the period under report and breaks the analysis down to operating, investing and financing activities. . It helps in assessing liquidity and solvency of a company and to check efficient cash management.

Three key components of Cash flow statements:

  • Cash from operating activities: This includes all the cash inflows and outflows generated by the revenue-generating activities of an enterprise like sale & purchase of raw materials, goods, labor cost, building inventory, advertising, and shipping the product etc.
  • Cash from investing activities: These activities include all cash inflows and outflows involving the investments that the company made in a specific time period such as the purchase of new plant, property, equipment, improvements capital expenditures, cash involved in purchasing other businesses or investments.
  • Cash from financial activities: This activity includes inflow of cash from investors such as banks and shareholders by getting loans, offering new shares etc, as well as the outflow of cash to shareholders as dividends as the company generates income. They reflect the change in capital & borrowings of the business.

In simple words, there can be cash inflow or the cash outflow from all three activities i.e. operation, investing and finance of a company. The sum of the total cash flows from all these activities can tell you how much is the company’s total cash inflow/outflow in a specific period of time.

Here is the Cash flow statement of Asian paints for the fiscal year 2016-17.

Asian Paints Annual Report 2016-17 cash flow statement1

Asian Paints Annual Report 2016-17 cash flow statement 2

From the Asian paints cashflow statement, we can notice that the net cash from operating activities has declined from Rs 2,242.95 Crores to Rs 1,527.33. This may be little troublesome for the company as the net cash from operating activities shows how much profit the company is generating from its basic operations.

As a thumb rule, an increase in the net cash from operating activities year over year is considered a healthy sign for the company. However, while comparing also look at the data for multiple years.

Quick note: In financial statements, generally accountants do not use the negative sign. For example, if the expense is to be deducted, it is not written as -40. When writing minus sign, accountants use parentheses (—). For the same example, it will be written as (40), not -40.

Summary:

It’s important to read and understand all the three financial statements of a company as they show the health of a company from different aspects.

  1. The balance sheet shows the assets and liabilities of a company.
  2. The income statement shows how much profit/loss the company has generated from its revenues and expenses.
  3. Cash flow statement shows the inflows and outflows of cash from the company.

While investing in a company, you should pay special attention to all these financial aspects of a company. As a thumb rule, invest in a company with high-income growth, large assets compared to its liabilities and a high cash flow.

That’s all! This is how to read financial statements of a company.

Although it’s not enough, however, this post aims to give a basic idea to the beginners about the financial statements of a company.

If you want to learn (in details) about where to find the financial statements of an Indian company and how to effectively study the reports, feel free to check out my online course on HOW TO PICK WINNING STOCKS here. I have explained everything about financial statements in this course.

Further please comment if you have any questions. I’ll be happy to help you out.

Happy Investing!

Tags: How to read financial statements of a company, how to read financial statements, which financial statement is most important to investors, how to read financial statements India, company financial statements examples, How to read financial statements of a company

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting

financial ratio analysis 1

8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know

8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know. The valuation of a company is a very tedious job. It’s not easy to evaluate the true worth of a company as the process takes the reading of company’s several years’ financial statements like balance sheet, profit and loss statements, cash-flow statement, Income statement etc.

Although it really tough to go through all these information, however, there are various financial ratios available which can make the life of a stock investor really simple. Using these ratios they can choose right companies to invest in or to compare the financials of two companies to find out which one is better.

This post about ‘8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know’ is divided into two parts. In the first part, I will give you the definitions and examples of these 8 financial ratios. In the second part, after financial ratio analysis, I will tell you how and where to find these ratios. So, be with me for the next 8-10 minutes to enhance your financial knowledge.

So, let’s start the first part of this post with the financial ratio analysis.

If you are a beginner and want to learn stock market, I will highly recommend you to read this book first: Everything You Wanted to Know About Stock Market Investing


Quick note: You don’t need to worry about how to calculate these ratios or remember the formulas by-heart, as it will be already given in the financial websites. However, I will recommend you to go through this financial ratio analysis as it’s always beneficial to have good financial knowledge.


financial ratio analysis trade brains

Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know:

  1. Earnings Per Share (EPS):

    This is one of the key ratios and is really important to understand Earnings per share (EPS) before we study other ratios. EPS is basically the profit that a company has made over the last year divided by how many shares are on the market. Preferred shares are not included while calculating EPS.

    Earnings Per Share (EPS) = (Net income – dividends from preferred stock)/(Average outstanding shares)

    From the perspective of an investor, it’s always better to invest in a company with higher EPS as it means that the company is generating greater profits. Also, before investing in a company, you should check it’s EPS for the last 5 years. If the EPS is growing for these years, it’s a good sign and if the EPS is regularly falling or is erratic, then you should start searching another company.

  2. Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E)

    The Price to Earnings ratio is one of the most widely used financial ratio analysis among the investors for a very long time. A high P/E ratio generally shows that the investor is paying more for the share. As a thumb rule, a low P/E ratio is preferred while buying a stock, but the definition of ‘low’ varies from industries to industries. So, different sectors (Ex Automobile, Banks etc) have different P/E ratios for the companies in their sector, and comparing the P/E ratio of the company of one sector with P/E ratio of the company of another sector will be insignificant. However, you can use P/E ratio to compare the companies in the same sector, preferring one with low P/E. The P/E ratio is calculated using this formula:

    Price to Earnings Ratio= (Price Per Share)/( Earnings Per Share)

    It’s easier to find the find the price of the share as you can find it at the current closing stock price. For the earning per share, we can have either trailing EPS (earnings per share based on the past 12 months) or Forward EPS (Estimated basic earnings per share based on a forward 12-month projection. It’s easier to find the trailing EPS as we already have the result of the past 12 month’s performance of the company.

  3. Price to Book Ratio (P/B)

    Price to Book Ratio (P/B) is calculated by dividing the current price of the stock by the latest quarter’s book value per share. P/B ratio is an indication of how much shareholders are paying for the net assets of a company. Generally, a lower P/B ratio could mean that the stock is undervalued, but again the definition of lower varies from sector to sector.

    Price to Book Ratio = (Price per Share)/( Book Value per Share)

  4. Debt to Equity Ratio

    The debt-to-equity ratio measures the relationship between the amount of capital that has been borrowed (i.e. debt) and the amount of capital contributed by shareholders (i.e. equity). Generally, as a firm’s debt-to-equity ratio increases, it becomes riskier A lower debt-to-equity number means that a company is using less leverage and has a stronger equity position.

    Debt to Equity Ratio =(Total Liabilities)/(Total Shareholder Equity)

    As a thumb of rule, companies with a debt-to-equity ratio more than 1 are risky and should be considered carefully before investing.

  5. Return on Equity (ROE)

    Return on equity (ROE) is the amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity. ROE measures a corporation’s profitability by revealing how much profit a company generates with the money shareholders has invested. In other words, ROE tells you how good a company is at rewarding its shareholders for their investment.

    Return on Equity = (Net Income)/(Average Stockholder Equity)

    As a thumb rule, always invest in a company with ROE greater than 20% for at least last 3 years. A yearly increase in ROE is also a good sign.

  6. Price to Sales Ratio (P/S)

    The stock’s price/sales ratio (P/S) ratio measures the price of a company’s stock against its annual sales. P/S ratio is another stock valuation indicator similar to the P/E ratio.

    Price to Sales Ratio = (Price per Share)/(Annual Sales Per Share)

    The P/S ratio is a great tool because sales figures are considered to be relatively reliable while other income statement items, like earnings, can be easily manipulated by using different accounting rules.

  7. Current Ratio

    The current ratio is a key financial ratio for evaluating a company’s liquidity. It measures the proportion of current assets available to cover current liabilities. It is a company’s ability to pay its short-term liabilities with its short-term assets. If the ratio is over 1.0, the firm has more short-term assets than short-term debts. But if the current ratio is less than 1.0, the opposite is true and the company could be vulnerable

    Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)

    As a thumb rule, always invest in a company with a current ratio greater than 1.

  8. Dividend Yield

    A stock’s dividend yield is calculated as the company’s annual cash dividend per share divided by the current price of the stock and is expressed in annual percentage.

    Dividend Yield = (Dividend per Share)/(Price per Share)*100

    For Example, If the share price of a company is Rs 100 and it is giving a dividend of Rs 10, then the dividend yield will be 10%. It totally depends on the investor whether he wants to invest in a high or a low dividend yielding company.

    Also Read: 4 Must-Know Dates for a Dividend Stock Investor

If you want to read further in details, I will recommend you to read this book: Everything You Wanted to Know About Stock Market Investing -Best selling book for stock market beginners. 

Now that we have completed the key financial ratio analysis, we should move towards where and how to find these financial ratios.

For an Indian Investor, you these are 3 big financial websites where you can find all the key ratios mentioned above along with other important financial information:

I, generally use money control to find the key financial ratio analysis. The mobile app for Money control is also very efficient and friendly and I will recommend you to use the mobile app.

Now, let me show you how to find these key ratios in Money Control. Let’s take a company, Say ‘Tata Motors’. Now, we will dig deep to find all the above-mentioned rations.

Financial ratio analysis -Steps to find the Key Ratios in Money Control:

  • Open http://www.moneycontrol.com/ and search for ‘Tata Motors’.
    financial ratio analysis 3
  • This will take you to the Tata Motor’s stock quote page.
    Scroll down to find the P/E, P/B, and Dividend Yield.
    financial ratio analysis 4financial ratio analysis 2
  • Now go to the ‘Financials’ tab and select ‘Ratio’ option [i.e. Financial  Ratio]
    Scroll down to find all the remaining financial ratios.
    financial ratio analysis 5

That’s all! These are the steps to do the key financial ratio analysis. Now, let me give you a quick summary of all the key financial ratios mentioned in the post.


Summary:

8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know:

  1. Earnings Per Share (EPS) – Increasing for last 5 years
  2. Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E) – Low compared to companies in the same sector
  3. Price to Book Ratio (P/B) – Low compared companies in the same sector
  4. Debt to Equity Ratio – Should be less than 1
  5. Return on Equity (ROE) – Should be greater than 20% 
  6. Price to Sales Ratio (P/S) – Smaller ratio (less than 1) is preferred
  7. Current Ratio – Should be greater than 1
  8. Dividend Yield – Depends on Investor/ Increasing preferred

In addition, here is a checklist (that you should download) which can help you to select a fundamentally strong company based on the financial ratios.

Feel free to share this image with ones whom you think can get benefit from the checklist.

5 simple financial ratios for stock picking

I hope this post on ‘8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know’ is useful for the readers. If you have any doubt or need any further clarifications, feel free to comment below. I will be happy to help you.

Hi, I am Kritesh, an NSE Certified Equity Fundamental Analyst. I’m 23-year old and an electrical engineer (NIT Warangal) by qualification. I have a passion for stocks and have spent my last 4+ years learning, investing and educating people about stock market investing. And so, I am delighted to share my learnings with you. #HappyInvesting