8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know. The valuation of a company is very tedious job. It’s not easy to evaluate the true worth of a company as the process takes reading of company’s several years’ financial statements like balance sheet, profit and loss statements, cashflow statement, Income statement etc.
Although it really tough to go through all these information, however there are various financial ratios available which can make the life of a stock investor really simple. Using these ratios they can choose right companies to invest in or to compare the financials of two companies to find out which one is better.
This post about ‘8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know’ is divided in two parts. In the first part, I will give you the definitions and examples of these 8 financial ratios. In the second part, after financial ratio analysis, I will tell you how and where to find these ratios. So, be with me for the next 810 minutes to enhance your financial knowledge.
So, let’s start the first part of this post with the financial ratio analysis.
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Quick note: You don’t need to worry about how to calculate these ratios or remember the formulas byheart, as it will be already given in the financial websites. However, I will recommend you to go through this financial ratio analysis as it’s always beneficial to have good financial knowledge.
Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know:

Earnings Per Share (EPS):
This is one of the key ratio and is really important to understand Earnings per share (EPS) before we study other ratios. EPS is basically the profit that a company has made over the last year divided by how many shares are on the market. Preferred shares are not included while calculating EPS.
Earnings Per Share (EPS) = (Net income – dividends from preferred stock)/(Average oustanding shares)
From the prospective of an investor, it’s always better to invest in a company with higher EPS as it means that the company is generating greater profits. Also, before investing in a company, you should check the it’s EPS for the last 5 years. If the EPS is growing for these years, it’s a good sign and if the EPS is regularly falling or is erratic, then you should start searching another company.

Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E)
The Price to Earnings ratio is one of the most widely used financial ratio analysis among the investors for a very long time. A high P/E ratio generally shows that the investor is paying more for the share. As a thumb rule, a low P/E ratio is preferred while buying a stock, but the definition of ‘low’ varies from industries to industries. So, different sectors (Ex Automobile, Banks etc) have different P/E ratios for the companies in their sector, and comparing the P/E ratio of company of one sector with P/E ratio of company of another sector will be insignificant. However, you can use P/E ratio to compare the companies in the same sector, preferring one with low P/E. The P/E ratio is calculated using this formula:
Price to Earnings Ratio= (Price Per Share)/( Earnings Per Share)
It’s easier to find the find the price of the share as you can find it from the current closing stock price. For the earning per share, we can have either trailing EPS (earnings per share based on the past 12 months) or Forward EPS (Estimated basic earnings per share based on a forward 12month projection. It’s easier to find the trailing EPS as we already have the result of the past 12 month’s performance of the company.

Price to Book Ratio (P/B)
Price to Book Ratio (P/B) is calculated by dividing the current price of the stock by the latest quarter’s book value per share. P/B ratio is an indication of how much shareholders are paying for the net assets of a company. Generally, a lower P/B ratio could mean that the stock is undervalued, but again the definition of lower varies from sector to sector.
Price to Book Ratio = (Price per Share)/( Book Value per Share)

Debt to Equity Ratio
The debttoequity ratio measures the relationship between the amount of capital that has been borrowed (i.e. debt) and the amount of capital contributed by shareholders (i.e. equity). Generally, as a firm’s debttoequity ratio increases, it becomes more risky A lower debttoequity number means that a company is using less leverage and has a stronger equity position.
Debt to Equity Ratio =(Total Liabilities)/(Total Shareholder Equity)
As a thumb of rule, companies with debttoequity ratio more than 1 are risky and should be considered carefully before investing.

Return on Equity (ROE)
Return on equity (ROE) is the amount of net income returned as a percentage of shareholders equity. ROE measures a corporation’s profitability by revealing how much profit a company generates with the money shareholders have invested. In other words, ROE tells you how good a company is at rewarding its shareholders for their investment.
Return on Equity = (Net Income)/(Average Stockholder Equity)
As a thumb rule, always invest in a company with ROE greater than 20% for at least last 3 years. A yearly increase in ROE is also a good sign.

Price to Sales Ratio (P/S)
The stock’s price/sales ratio (P/S) ratio measures the price of a company’s stock against its annual sales. P/S ratio is another stock valuation indicator similar to the P/E ratio.
Price to Sales Ratio = (Price per Share)/(Annual Sales Per Share)
The P/S ratio is a great tool because sales figures are considered to be relatively reliable while other income statement items, like earnings, can be easily manipulated by using different accounting rules.

Current Ratio
Current ratio is a key financial ratio for evaluating a company’s liquidity. It measures the proportion of current assets available to cover current liabilities. It is a company’s ability to pay its shortterm liabilities with its shortterm assets. If the ratio is over 1.0, the firm has more shortterm assets than shortterm debts. But if the current ratio is less than 1.0, the opposite is true and the company could be vulnerable
Current Ratio = (Current Assets)/(Current Liabilities)
As a thumb rule, always invest in a company with current ratio greater than 1.

Dividend Yield
A stock’s dividend yield is calculated as the company’s annual cash dividend per share divided by the current price of the stock and is expressed in annual percentage.
Dividend Yield = (Dividend per Share)/(Price per Share)*100
For Example, If the share price of a company is Rs 100 and it is giving a dividend of Rs 10, then the dividend yield will be 10%. It totally depends on the investor weather he wants to invest in a high or a low dividend yielding company.
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Now that we have completed the key financial ratio analysis, we should move towards where and how to find these financial ratios.
For an Indian Investor, you these are 3 big financial websites where you can find all the key ratios mentioned above along with other important financial information:
I, generally use money control to find the key financial ratio analysis. The mobile app of Money control is also very efficient and friendly and I will recommend you to use the mobile app.
Now, let me show you how to find these key ratios in Money Control. Let’s take a company, Say ‘Tata Motors’. Now, we will dig deep to find all the above mentioned rations.
Financial ratio analysis Steps to find the Key Ratios in Money Control:
 Open http://www.moneycontrol.com/ and search for ‘Tata Motors’.
 This will take you to the Tata Motor’s stock quote page.
Scroll down to find the P/E, P/B and Dividend yield.
 Now go to the ‘Financials’ tab and select ‘Ratio’ option [i.e. Financial Ratio]
Scroll down to find all the remaining financial ratios.
That’s all! These are the steps to do the key financial ratio analysis. Now, let me give you a quick summary for all the key financial ratios mentioned in the post:
Summary:
8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know:
 Earnings Per Share (EPS) – Increasing for last 5 years
 Price to Earnings Ratio (P/E) – Low compared to companies in same sector
 Price to Book Ratio (P/B) – Low compared companies in same sector
 Debt to Equity Ratio – Should be less than 1
 Return on Equity (ROE) – Should be greater that 20%
 Price to Sales Ratio (P/S) – Smaller ratio (less than 1) is preferred
 Current Ratio – Should be greater than 1
 Dividend Yield – Depends on Investor/ Increasing preferred
In addition, here is a checklist (that you should download) which can help you to select a fundamentally strong company based on the financial ratios.
Feel free to share this image with ones whom you think can get benefit from the checklist.
I hope this post on ‘8 Financial Ratio Analysis that Every Stock Investor Should Know’ is useful for the readers. If you have any doubt or need any further clarifications, feel free to comment below. I will be happy to help you.
iam Ramesh. Warren Buffett says. The Roce ratio is an indicatator of company that has a high ratio is a healthy bussiness. a low Roce below Bank interest rates shown an inefficient bussines that must be avoided. How where to understand bank interest rates. Please help me
Nice blog very informative.
Thanks sir
You are welcome Raheem.
Hi Kritesh,
I am a beginner to stock market investment.
I felt this is a best place for beginner to understand how to start investing in stock market. All you articles in traders.in are informative and very easy to understand for a beginner.
Just have few queries related to above article.
I understood what is P/B and P/S, but could not get significance of a same in selecting a stock. Could you please help me out on the same?
Hi. A lower P/B ratio means that the stock is undervalued. Similarly, A low P/S ratio may indicate possible undervaluation, while a ratio that is significantly above the average may suggest overvaluation. You can read more here: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/p/pricetobookratio.asp
Hi Kritesh.
I have one doubt. Suppose if we calculate the value of a particular stock using the 8 financial ratio and found that a stock is good, then how long will that stock stay in that condition. (i.e) the validity of the ratio analysis of that particular stock.
Hi Selvaganapathi! Great question. You have to continously monitor the stock by tracking the quaterly results of the company once you have bought. It won’t be that tough as it will require just few hours every quater. If the fundamentals of the company continue to detoriate, say the EPS is falling for next 2 quaters without any understandable reason quoted by the management, then you might need to reconsider about holding that stock for long.